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Questions tagged [international-trade]

International trade theory is a sub-field of economics which analyzes the patterns of international trade, its origins, and its welfare implications.

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Why does the EU need a clearing centre to circumvent US sanctions against Iran?

As reported here and elsewhere, the EU is considering the creation of a clearing house to keep trading with Iran despite US sanctions. Why is it not possible for the EU to conduct normal financial ...
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Bond prices and Trade deficit

Why does the narrowing of trade deficit cause an increase in bond prices? I do understand that narrowing of trade deficit leads to narrowing of capital account surplus. Also, investor confidence ...
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Theory of Optimal Currency Areas

Should a country be more inclined or less inclined to join a currency union (common currency) under the following events: a) Increase in the size and frequency of AD shocks to the economy. b)...
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Categorisation of Harmonised System codes for economic analysis

I work a lot with Harmonised System Codes (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmonized_System). In a nutshell, the Harmonised System (HS) provides a way to record all goods based trade in and out of a ...
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Did the dollar depreciate when Trump won the election?

I expected the the dollar to briefly depreciate against all currencies when Trump won the election (in 2016), but I have just learned that it briefly appreciated against some. It depreciated against ...
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Heckscher-Ohlin trade model with non-homothetic preferences

$U^j = \prod^N_i \left(d^j_i-\bar{d}_i\right)^\oint$ where $d^j_i$ is the per capita consumption of good $i$ in any country $j$; $\bar{d}_i \geq 0$ denotes the minimum consumption of each good $i$, ...
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Is it valid to assume that the international price of consumer durables is constant?

While studying tariffs in International Trade, we often come across a Demand Supply diagram along with a world supply curve that is perfectly elastic. Here we assume that the international or the ...
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Why does capital flight cause inflation?

Context: I was watching a video about Venezuela, and, it all started with capital flight due to poor confidence in the government. The government tried to stop it, and in the process it created a ...
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How does a bank convert one currency to another?

Say for example I sell ZAR and buy USD. What happens behind the scenes so that the local ZAR bank is able to deposit USD into my account? Does the bank require some sort of USD cash reserve? How do ...
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advice on econometric or methodological approach of my master thesis

For my master thesis, I am studying the effect of input trade liberalizaion on Research and development decision depending on firms' financial constraints in India. I have a firm level database from ...
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Trade pattern in Krugman 1991

Studying the model of Krugman, 1991: the one in which good varieties are country-specific so that there is trade because in presence of increasing returns, each good is produced in only one country, I ...
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Does the WTO have a mechanism to accommodate states transitioning trade regimes?

If the UK were to leave the EU without a Withdrawal Agreement in place it defaults to WTO trading terms. Does the WTO have a mechanism to accommodate such a transition?
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How did old international loans work?

On June 11, 1782, John Adams secured a much needed loan for the new Republic from Holland. How exactly did this work in the days of strictly paper currency? What did it mean to loan internationally ...
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Eaton & Kortum - Technology, Geography, and Trade - How theta impacts geographical barrier

The paper says: Smaller $\theta$ implies more heterogeneity, and thus larger comparative advantage, and hence stronger force for trade relative to resistance $d_{ni}$. Would it be correct to ...
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Volume of trade covered by regional trade agreements

Is anyone aware of statistics about the total volume of trade that happens under regional trade agreements (RTAs)? It's easy to find figures for the number of agreements, but not so easy for their ...
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Why division of labor or specialization boosts productivity

The three reasons given by Adam Smith were: Increased dexterity. Saving of the time which is commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another. The invention of a great number of machines ...
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What sectors would be most affected positively or negatively by Trump´s trade agreement renegotiations?

One of Trump´s stated policies is that he will renegotiate the trade agreements with China and the Canada and México (NAFTA). This renegotiation might go well in which maybe the US gets freer access ...
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Correct Calculation of Balassa Revealed Comparative Advantage (with full trade data)

The typical approach to computing RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage) is the Balassa definition: $RCA=\frac{\frac{X_cp}{\sum_{p=1}^{P}{X_cp}}}{\frac{\sum_{c=1}^{C}{X_cp}}{\sum_{c=1,p=1}^{C,P}{X_cp}}}...
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What does an increase in REER signify?

What does an increase in the real effective exchange rate signify? I read from a news report that (localized for India): Furthermore, REER is calculated in such a way that an increase in its ...
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J Curve and DD Schedule in the Short Run (International Finance)

Assume that the J-curve is true. What would the DD curve look like during the early period of the J-curve (where the value effect dominates)? What would the effect of temporary changes in monetary ...
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gravity regressions with firm-level data

What are the problems of estimating gravity regressions with firm-level data or industry-level data rather than country-level data?
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When finding targets in a trade war, does the goods balance or trade balance matter more?

By most measures, most people who look at trade balance, but it might include a good chunk of services imports/exports who might not be as readily subjected to tariffs.
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How can the “Share of merchandise imports at current PPPs” be negative?

I'm looking at the Penn World Table 9.0 data, and find that the "Share of merchandise imports at current PPPs" (csh_m) can be negative. For example, ...
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Where UK finds money to sustain its negative trading balance?

UK had a negative trading balance for the last 20 years. Where does it find money to finance it? Is such situation sustainable?
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Question on an argument in “The Myth of Absolute Advantage”

Brandis (1967) argues that "absolute advantage does not exist" and "that it is a logical impossibility". (See also comment, comment, reply.) My question here is very narrow and specific. I do not ...
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Under what conditions are tariffs or export subsidies expansionary?

Charles Kindleberger writes in the introduction to /The World in Depression/: The imposition of tariffs should be expansionary for the importing country, if contractive for the countries losing ...
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What is the new price after an import quota?

For a small domestic market that can buy completely price elastic imports from the world, the price of the good will be at (P world). However, when there is an import quota of quantity (Q3 - Q2), why ...
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Ricardian Model: Trade pattern rules (ch. 3 Krugman's book)

I'm reading chapter three of International Economics by Paul Krugman et al. I have two questions that are somewhat related. Question 1: Let $P_{c}$ = price of cheese, $P_{w}$ = price of wine, $a_{Lc}...
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Relationship between changes in Currency against basket of currencies and inflation

Sorry I'm not an economist, but I was wondering if there was a general country by country guide to how inflation there changes with response to a change in the currency's value against a basket of ...
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Can not achieving complete factor price equalisation be good for world trade?

I am just wondering whether not achieving FPE is good for world trade. My reason being that is that international trade keeps expanding until complete FPE is achieved, according to the Heckscher-Ohlin ...
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Which model of trade is this?

In a recent article, Paul Krugman showed these equations: Which model is this? What do the symbols denote? Is the first symbol a v or nu?
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External economies of scale: who will produce when going from autarky to free trade?

Hi "Assume that two countries can potentially trade goods in an industry that is characterized by external economies of scale. Country B produces at Q(B) in autarky and country A produces at Q(A) in ...
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Why shouldn't the relative prices change in the Heckscher-Ohlin model?

I'm having trouble with the Rybczynski theorem. Let's say there's a migration to the domestic economy, increasing the Labor endowment. It states that the production of the good that uses labor more ...
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Cloth, Corn and Gold: James Stuart Mill example

I don't quite get James Stuart Mill's example of cloth, corn and gold in "Elements of Political Economy". He supposes that 20 yards of cloth takes the same amount of effort to make as 4 quarters of ...
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How does Global Saving Glut flood the market with cash?

When I was browsing the internet last night, I read a couple articles on the Global Saving Glut. And many has ascribed it to be a cause of US financial crsis. My question is how so? The articles argue ...
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Want to read more about medical intellectual property and the TPP

I'm trying to find information about the current state of medical IP protection in countries willing to sign the TPP and the change they will go trough and maybe some impact analysis. I was hoping ...
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how can devaluation of a nation's currency lead to increase in government expenditure, hence facilitating economic growth

how can devaluation of a nation's currency lead to increase in government expenditure, hence facilitating economic growth. I was reading through a textbook and saw that the devaluation of a nation's ...
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Deriving Marginal Product For Hecksher-Ohlin

I'm using the second edition of applied international trade by Bowen and for the HO model, the marginal product with respect to capital ought to be the first term of the final answer (as given in the ...
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why doesn't every country scale up the prices to the international level?

I live in an Asian country in which the average monthly salary is maybe 300-400 dollars but things (apart from exported goods like laptops or smartphones) are reasonably cheap compared to their price ...
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If regional subsidiaries bypass trade restrictions, why are FTAs needed?

One of the ways corporations trade transnationally in the face of local restrictions on market access is to set up subsidiary companies or regional offices from which trade is conducted. If such ...
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What international payment systems do exist?

I recently read up on the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT). As faar as I understood it was up until recently the only provider of a system to exchange money ...
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Two deflator series with different base year to proxy real exchange rate

I'm conducting a research in which the real exchange rate serves as a variable. A quick literature review shows that we can use the product of the nominal exchange rate and the ratio between the US ...
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Are trade deficits good/bad or neither?

Is there an academic consensus on whether a trade deficit is good/bad or neither? And if that country is in a monetary union, does the answer change because the wealth moved out of the country can be ...
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Central bank selling foreign securities

According to the Krugman Obstfeld textbook, When a central bank sells foreign bonds, it decreases domestic money supply. My question is: foreign bonds are denoted in foreign currency. Selling these ...
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Financing of Current Account Deficit

From the Balance of Payments identity, we have that: $$ CAB+FI=\triangle RES $$ Or that, the current account deficit is financed by either capital inflows, or a change in reserves. My question is ...
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How important is “second best optimum” for the modelling and formulation of policy advice?

The standard formulation of second best theory is: if there is introduced into a general equilibrium system a constraint which prevents the attainment of one of the Paretian conditions, the ...
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Is there an dollar estimate of the trade deficit change of the updated KORUS deal?

In March 2018, the Trump administration has struck its first updated trade deal, with South Korea. The list of trade barriers changed doesn't seem too expansive but it does include some potentially ...
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How will Trump’s tariffs affect North Korea?

How will Trump’s tariffs affect North Korea? Do tariffs mainly worsen the condition of the North Korean economy?
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Effect of trade on voting

It is a common conception these days that exposure to international trade and its adverse effects is a major factor in the rise of protectionist parties or candidates in the most advanced economies (...
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Why does only relative price and not absolute price matter in international trade models?

Suppose I have two teachers: Adam and Bob. Suppose Adam takes 20 hours to lecture and 30 hours to grade, while Bob takes 100 hours to lecture and 60 hours to grade. In absolute terms, Adam is ...