Questions tagged [international-trade]

International trade theory is a sub-field of economics which analyzes the patterns of international trade, its origins, and its welfare implications.

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Why division of labor or specialization boosts productivity

The three reasons given by Adam Smith were: Increased dexterity. Saving of the time which is commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another. The invention of a great number of machines ...
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What's the economic effect of a country reducing its imports?

If a country enacts a program that successfully reduces its imports, eg: A 'buy local' advertising campaign A program of training mechanics to maintain older cars, rather than buying new imports An ...
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Want to read more about medical intellectual property and the TPP

I'm trying to find information about the current state of medical IP protection in countries willing to sign the TPP and the change they will go trough and maybe some impact analysis. I was hoping ...
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Difference between merchandise trade and trade in goods?

What is the difference between merchandise trade and trade in goods? Are they the same? If so, would total trade be just trade in goods + trade in services, aka merchandise trade + trade in services?
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Why would Switzerland, with its export-driven economy, worry about weakening against the dollar?

I was reading about the SNB's decision to abandon the peg in 2015, and among the various articles I read, one from CNBC quoted the SNB president saying the following "The euro has depreciated ...
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Solutions for the de-dollarization of the Democratic Republic of Congo

While reading this article, I was wondering about the policies the DRC's government could employ to make the congolese franc appreciate. To appreciate the currency, the DRC by decreased investment in ...
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How could the economic cost of the world not speaking the same language be estimated?

While languages are fun and add color and flair to cultures and make the world a more interesting place, they also have a cost. Beyond the monetary costs of translation/editing/proofreading, ...
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Why are imported Chinese products in India cheaper than those locally produced?

Why an imported Chinese product in India is cheaper compared to a locally manufactured item?
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Crude oil benchmarks and production places

I discovered recently that there are 3 main price indicators for crude oil (used by the IMF): WTI, Dubaï, and UK Brent. If I understand correctly, each place trades some specific kind of oil (with ...
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Under what conditions are tariffs or export subsidies expansionary?

Charles Kindleberger writes in the introduction to /The World in Depression/: The imposition of tariffs should be expansionary for the importing country, if contractive for the countries losing ...
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975 views

Uncovered Interest Parity question

I am trying to understand the fact that, given that the uncovered interest parity holds, a rise in dollar interest rates will cause the dollar to appreciate. Is this a good intuition? Uncovered ...
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International Trade: Two country trade problem

A country (home) is pouplated with workers who produce either Food or Clothing. There are 200 workers producing food and 100 producing clothing. Each food worker produces 6 units of food and each ...
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What does trade deficit really mean?

I watched a video about how if America imports USD 1m worth of goods but only exports USD 600k worth of goods, there is a USD 400k debt to other countries if the other country allows this deficit. US ...
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Can anyone recommend a resource for monthly trade data for Mexico from before 2010?

Can anyone point me to a resource where I can find monthly series data (specifically for 2003-2013) on Mexico's imports and exports in nominal (current) Mexican Pesos (MEP) including broken down by ...
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225 views

Gravity Equation Interpretation

I have a question about the gravity equation. In the Feenstra textbook, on page 144, it is stated that In the monopolistic competition model [...] the countries are completely specialized in ...
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In the Ricardian model, why are two out of 3 cases invalid?

I am considering the Ricardian model. There is an economy with two countries $S,T$. Two goods $a,b$. Each country has linear production technology with labor ($\ell$) as only factor of production. $...
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How is wealth created? [duplicate]

The production of 'goods and services' and 'innovation' is the usual answer. I feel that doesn't really answer the question. These things can be traded for wealth but they don't generate new wealth. ...
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Eric Reinert's conspiracy theory?

After read Eric Reinert's "How Rich Countries Got Rich ... and Why Poor Countries Stay Poor", I've got the question: Reinert theory is: Rich West countries are investing to advanced branches at ...
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What exactly is the argument for Free Trade?

There's been a lot of talk about Free Trade. People seem to either know nothing about it, or they seem to either support or oppose it with such passion that if you didn't know any better, you would ...
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advice on econometric or methodological approach of my master thesis

For my master thesis, I am studying the effect of input trade liberalizaion on Research and development decision depending on firms' financial constraints in India. I have a firm level database from ...
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984 views

How does trading create value? [closed]

Let's say village A has all the something S they need, and village B has all the something T they need. The properties of S outweigh the benefits of T. Village A and village B start to trade S for T. ...
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EU and North America with CETA

The CETA trade deal is supposed to involve only the EU and Canada, but Canada has already a trade deal with the USA and Mexico : I don't understand how this is possible. For example, if I own one ...
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3answers
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What's good about both exports and imports of a country rising at the same time?

I recently came across a question that asks, if exports in a country rises by USD10 billion and imports rises by USD10 billion, what's good about both of these? To my understanding, the GDP wouldn't ...
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390 views

What is the new price after an import quota?

For a small domestic market that can buy completely price elastic imports from the world, the price of the good will be at (P world). However, when there is an import quota of quantity (Q3 - Q2), why ...
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Ricardian Model: Trade pattern rules (ch. 3 Krugman's book)

I'm reading chapter three of International Economics by Paul Krugman et al. I have two questions that are somewhat related. Question 1: Let $P_{c}$ = price of cheese, $P_{w}$ = price of wine, $a_{Lc}$ ...
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Concept of absolute advantage

Can someone please explain the concept of absolute advantage with an example? I know it has to do with the fact that a nation should produce a commodity that is cheap relative to other commodities but ...
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Who exploits comparative advantage in international trade?

Suppose that under autarky, Colombia makes coffee and cars at \$1 and \$2 each, and Japan makes coffee and cars at \$20 and \$10 each. Since Japan has a comparative advantage in car manufacture, the ...
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How is Comparative Advantage a superset of Absolute Advantage? [duplicate]

Source: 'The Theory of Comparative Advantage - Overview', Prof Steven M. Suranovic Advantageous trade based on comparative advantage, then, covers a larger set of circumstances while still ...
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Is comparative advantage only beneficial with convex utility functions?

I've been playing around with the numbers associated with the traditional comparative advantage problem provided by Ricardo. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_advantage) I looked at ...
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Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage for many countries

In textbooks on economics the Ricardo theory of comparative advantages is explained on the example of two countries with two goods. I suppose, there must be generalizations of Ricardo's theory for ...
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Correct Calculation of Balassa Revealed Comparative Advantage (with full trade data)

The typical approach to computing RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage) is the Balassa definition: $RCA=\frac{\frac{X_cp}{\sum_{p=1}^{P}{X_cp}}}{\frac{\sum_{c=1}^{C}{X_cp}}{\sum_{c=1,p=1}^{C,P}{X_cp}}}...
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What is the proof for why border adjustments are exactly offset in theory by currency appreciation?

Why is it true, in theory, that border adjustments are exactly offset by currency appreciation? I've read the colloquial explanations online, but am looking for something more rigorous. For example, ...
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What is the name given to an exporting-only economy?

In international trading there can be an economy that only exports, but restrict the import to minimum or at all. I cannot recall what the name given to this type of economy.
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Trade pattern in Krugman 1991

Studying the model of Krugman, 1991: the one in which good varieties are country-specific so that there is trade because in presence of increasing returns, each good is produced in only one country, I ...
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227 views

How exactly can blockchain technology be used to make a supply chain more efficient?

I am a software developer, and have been studying Bitcoin, Ethereum and blockchain technology over the last 8 months or so. I have read a lot on the Internet about how blockchain technology will ...
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62 views

Understanding the effects of government deficit on international trade

Understand that I'm a total novice with regard to economics. Also, while I ultimately have an axe to grind (doesn't everyone?) I'm not trying to do that honing here, I'm simply looking for a sanity ...
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Have UK exports (goods and services) to Ireland declined in value since 2011?

Where can I find the relevant Office Of National Statistics data on UK exports to Ireland? I want to know if the value of UK exports to Ireland has declined since 2011 and if so, does anyone know why ...
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3k views

Converting current to constant USD values for trade data (UN Comtrade)

I am using WB (country GDP) data in combination with UN Comtrade (bilateral trade) data. I need to divide bilateral trade by GDP so as to find out which % of a country's GDP comes from bilateral trade....
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How can we estimate the tax incidence from a 20% tariff on Mexican goods?

President Trump has proposed a 20% tariff on some Mexican imports to the US. Is there a good way to estimate the incidence of this proposal between the Mexican producers and American consumers, as ...
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Why don't prices of USA labor and Mexican labor equalise?

That Mexicans workers get paid less US workers is a dynamic which motivates the moving of production to Mexico. This idea can be abstracted to Developed Markets (DM) labor and Emerging Markets (EM) ...
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Are there plausible scenarios for the U.S. dollar to fall out of use as the world's reserve currency?

The U.S. has maintained an overall trade deficit for decades, essentially exporting money. For many countries this fund of 'ex-patriated' dollars has been a big tool of trade. Everyone accepts dollars....
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193 views

Are Terms of Trade reciprocal?

I am trying to learn the meaning of Terms of Trade, but I'm confused. From the wikipedia article, it says that TOT is the ratio of the value of exports over imports, and since for the other country ...
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356 views

What is the name of the economics free trade “punnett square”

I remember doing these in High School.It was a 2x2 square, where you could work out the math to show that countries were better off focusing on their efficiency/competitive advantage, and that free ...
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Must total world net exports be zero?

On the Wall Street Journal Op-Ed page (Trump’s Real Trade Problem Is Money ), John D. Mueller discusses the gold standard and claims something that I've either never heard before, don't understand, ...
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Is the Trans Pacific Partnership good or bad for the U.S?

I've explored a number of different articles and some say it's good because american consumers/business aren't impacted by the tarrifs, however some other sources say we barely export anything to the ...
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How are petro states able to maintain gasoline subsidies without black market export smuggling?

I don't understand how petro states can have crazy low gasoline prices without smugglers exporting the gasoline and selling it elsewhere. For example, in Venezuela the domestic price of gasoline is ...
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What factors allow manufacturing to succeed in a developed country?

I am undertaking some research regarding differences between manufacturing sectors across countries. I have noted that China has taken a lot of the less skilled manufacturing work away from developed ...
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How does the U.S agriculture subsidy not constitute export subsidies under the WTO?

The WTO explicitly prohibits subsidies on export goods to prevent dumping and market distortion but the United States spends $2.4 Billion annually on corn subsidies ...
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How do currency traders resolve imbalances in the demand for different currencies?

Countries trade different amounts of goods that are inherently imbalanced. How do currency traders resolve these imbalances in the demand for different currencies? For example.... Imagine we have two ...
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Relationship between changes in Currency against basket of currencies and inflation

Sorry I'm not an economist, but I was wondering if there was a general country by country guide to how inflation there changes with response to a change in the currency's value against a basket of ...

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