# Questions tagged [macroeconomics]

Macroeconomics is a branch of economics dealing with the aggregate economy as a whole, rather than individual markets.

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### Can intermediate good producer's profit ever be zero in new keynesian model?

In monopolistic competition, firms are said to have zero long-run economic profit. This makes me wonder whether profits of intermediate goods producers in New Keynesian model ever be zero. For ...
188 views

### What does one-sided polynomial on lag operator $L$ mean?

In some time series texts, there are some talks about one-sided polynomial on lag operator $L$. I tried looking up what this means, but I cannot find one. So what does one-sided polynomial on lag ...
438 views

### How to solve a linear forward-looking equation $x_t = \beta E_t[x_{t+1}] + k$ where $\lim_{t \to \infty} x_t = 0$ and $0<\beta < 1$?

How does one solve a linear forward-looking equation $x_t = \beta E_t[x_{t+1}] + k$ where $\lim_{t \to \infty} x_t = 0$ and constant $k,\beta \in \mathbb{R}$, $0<\beta <1$?
280 views

### How did reducing the employment gender gap impact the US economy?

Premise In the United States, women have been replacing men in the workforce, or rather were from sometime prior to 1976 until the mid-90's. (The general upward trend is from the recent recession, ...
280 views

### What are the economic impacts of different professions?

Every dollar a research worker earns makes the economy \$5 better off and every dollar a finance worker makes costs the economy \$0.60 So Reddit Economics yesterday posited and later retracted the ...
2k views

### why is real wage divided by marginal product of labor often called real marginal cost?

As said in the title, why is real wage divided by marginal product of labor often called real marginal cost? In mathematical formula, $mc_t = (W_t/P_t)/MPN_t$ where $MPN_t$ refers to marginal product ...
3k views

### Gross value added and worker salary

I'm trying to figure out how the Gross value added is calculated. The first question that I have encountered is "Does the Gross value added of an activity includes workers salary?" If not, what is the ...
61 views

### Extensive Labor Margin and Full Insurance

Extensive margin models use Rogerson (1988) style lotteries in order to simplify the savings problem under non-full-insurance. However, one could still write down the model in that style but instead ...
68 views

### When estimating a basic macroeconomics model, why is goodness of fit with labor data not often dealt with?

So when dealing with not-too-complex RBC models or New Keynesian models, we often arrive with a few final reduced-form equations, and as far as I know, we use these equations to estimate the model. ...
1k views

### Why is capital often not included in New Keynesian models? Is there a reason other than modeling difficulty?

In New Keynesian models, like the ones in Gali's simple New Keynesian model or even Mankiw-Reis NK model on sticky information, capital is often not included. Now people do say that there are ...
88 views

### In most New Keynesian models, can monetary shock affect technology shock also?

One simple New Keynesian model would be http://crei.cat/people/gali/pdf_files/monograph/slides-ch3.pdf but I do not restrict my question to this model only. Let us for now ignore the problem of ...
467 views

### Real option effect of uncertainty - irreversiblity vs fixed cost

There is a growing literature (e.g. Bloom, 2009) studying negative macroeconomic impacts of heightened uncertainty. One channel through which uncertainty can discourage economic activity, and ...
1k views

### In log-linearized New Keynesian model, what do $Y$, $Y_t$, $y_t$ actually mean?

This may be a weird question, but I am unfortunately confused by terms. Let us suppose log-linearized New Keynesian model as suggested by Gali here: http://crei.cat/people/gali/pdf_files/monograph/...
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### With OPEC driving the prices of oil down, can American producers simply store oil produced at higher cost to sell later? [closed]

I have been wondering. With OPEC driving down the price of oil in order to stifle the growth of the American oil industry, what can we do about it? More specifically, why don't these oil producers ...
610 views

### What benefits do OPEC countries obtain by cutting oil supply?

It is unclear to a economic novice like me why OPEC is not cutting down production and raising oil prices. I have read several journalists commenting upon this on the internet but perhaps an economist ...
350 views

### Straub and Werning, 2014, on zero capital taxation

This is a test balloon to see whether these kinds of questions are appreciated/welcome on Econ.SE: I had a hard time grasping Straub and Werning (2014) (no paywall). I understand the general ...
855 views

### Complete Markets in Continuous Time

In the standard discrete time economies with a finite number of states, $n$, a complete markets economy is simply an economy with $n$ independent assets (Think Ljunqvist and Sargent Chapter 8). This ...
3k views

### Empirical estimates of CRRA and CARA utility

I am working on macroeconomic model and I need to calibrate it. I am looking primarily for a statistically-founded estimate for the coefficient of relative risk aversion in the CRRA utility function ...
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### How did the Bail-In in Cyprus Work?

I've seen some articles online about the Cyprus-style bail-ins When the bail-in actually happened there, they took money from people's accounts, but from where did they take the money? For example, ...
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### ICAPM when assets' mean returns and variance-covariance matrix are not constant over time

The intertemporal capital asset pricing model (ICAPM), under the usual assumptions, produces a multifactor pricing model like the one described in this question. When and how would it be possible to ...
5k views

### Log-linearization of Euler equation with an expectation term

There are a few online resources available to help with log-linearization (e.g., here or here). However, log-linearization where an expectation is involved is a little tricky because the log can't ...
923 views

### What is the calculable effect of counterfeiting on an economy?

I'm curious whether one can numerically calculate the effect that counterfeiting has on an economy. As I understand it, counterfeiting essentially amounts to theft of the wealth of everybody holding ...
229 views

### Models for inflation prediction

I am looking for some statistical models that are accepted to best predict inflation rates. Anything that is more complicated than linear model will be appreciated. Or even recommend books that ...
228 views

### Growth Accounting

In growth accounting the production function is defined as follows: $$Y= AF(K,L)$$ That means output $Y$ is dependent upon capital $K$, labour $L$ and technology $A$. Now to produce something, in ...
1k views

### Graduate Level Textbook on Labor Economics and Macro-Labor

What would be good textbooks at the graduate level that deal with Labor Economics and Labor-Macro (As in, Equilibrium Unemployment Theory, Shimer Puzzle etc)?
74 views

### Distribution of Wages

Is there any paper that looks at the distribution of wages? I'd like to see how many workers are in each percentile of labor income. I know that you could compute it using CPS or US tax data, but I ...
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### Central Banks and Price Stability

Are there any empirical studies on the question of whether independent central banks cause price stability? I am seeking to understand if independence (of the central monitory authority) is part of ...
229 views

### Long Term Impacts of Austerity Measures

Is there much research into the long term impacts of government fiscal contractions. I have heard about 2nd generation unemployed as a result of Thatcher's policies but that is very much anecdotal. ...
7k views

### What is the economic purpose of increasing the minimum wage?

It is generally accepted among economists that minimum wage warps the equilibrium point between the supply and demand of labor by instituting a price floor and increases unemployment for unskilled ...
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### Why is the rouble collapsing?

What are the reasons why the rouble (RUB) is collapsing? Which one is the main one?
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### Where do remittances come into play in the formula for GDP?

In the classic formula for GDP, i.e., GDP=C+I+G+X-M, where are remittances accounted for? With remittances as high as third of GDP for developing countries, I wonder how they are not explicit in this ...
409 views

### Inflation reasons beyond Friedman

I think everyone know this Friedman's quote nowadays: Inflation is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon in the sense that it is and can be produced only by a more rapid increase in the ...
2k views

### What is the difference between “aggregation” and a “representative agent?”

What is the difference between "aggregation" and a "representative agent?" I'm sorry if I'm not entirely clear on this question, but that's why I ask. It seems to me as if a representative agent is ...
787 views

### Why is capital income taxed differently than wage income?

Why is income from capital gains taxed differently than wage income? There are perhaps historical, practical, and theoretical reasons. What are they? (As far as historical reason go, I'm asking ...
157 views

### Employment Volatility and the Relevance of Aggregate Wage Rigidity

The Mortensen-Pissarides (MP) framework of search labor is the thing in analyzing (equilibrium) unemployment over the business cycle. Shimer showed that the lack of hires is the big margin that ...
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### Banking Regulatory Frameworks, between the 1973 collapse of Bretton Woods and the introduction of the Basel Accords in 1988?

Does anyone know of any work on banking system behaviour, and in particular the governing regulatory frameworks that applied between the 1973 collapse of the gold standard based Bretton Woods system ...
192 views

### Credit Frictions as the source of Business Cycles

Many papers look at the impact of credit frictions onto business cycles, and they almost unambiguously find that credit frictions work as an amplification mechanism of other shocks. For example, ...
171 views

The basic idea of Schumpeterian Business Cycles is that new technologies require creative destruction but will yield positive growth. These two opposing forces have impacts onto the real economy at ...
308 views

### What is the impact on the money supply of a reduction in the required reserve ratio? [closed]

In April 2011, the money supply was estimated to be 52 million hurls. At the same time, bank reserves were 6.24 million hurls and the reserve requirement was 12 percent. The banking industry, being ā...
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### How to get details on all the models used for evaluating ACA?

I am trying to track down the models and the underpinnings/details for them for models that may have been used to evaluate the ACA/Obamacare. I am aware of Gruber's (proprietary) model, and am ...
176 views

### Whatever happened to efficiency wage theories?

Older macroeconomics texts give much space to efficiency wage explanations of how unemployment could coexist with wages in equilibrium higher than the reservation wage of workers. However, there ...
1k views

### Government expenditure multiplier in the new-Keynesian model?

Does a temporary increase in government expenditure increase output in the standard new-Keynesian DSGE model? Is it possible to draw any intuitive parallels between the impact of government ...
1k views

### In what sense are “new-Keynesian” models “new” and in what sense are they “Keynesian”?

Hopefully, the title of this question is quite descriptive. Whilst I have a broad understanding of the research agenda of macroeconomics, I don't have a very good picture of how it is divided into ...
555 views

### Why does the Laffer curve for consumption have no peak?

According to Trabant and Uhlig (2009), the Laffer curve for consumption has no peak. As far as I can make out, the argument is based on the fact that money extracted by taxing consumption ends up ...
341 views

### Friedman k% applied to cryptocurrency

Follow on to this question: Would a cryptocurrency with a base that expanded at a fix rate face fewer difficulties than one with a stagnant base? Edit: I'm referring specifically to the issues raised ...
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### From an economics perspective, what are the ramifications of a currency with fixed money supply?

I'm thinking specifically of bitcoins. What are the pros and cons of having a fixed number of coins, as opposed to more "normal" currencies? Would the currency have no inflation?
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### Lifecycle Consumption Models and Dispersion in Consumption

Lifecycle models base on the assumption that households want to maximize their consumption and at the same time insure themselves against income shocks. However, there is a lot of (c.p.) consumption ...
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### Unemployment and the Frisch-Elasticity

There is the long debate on the Frisch-Elasticity being the driver of unemployment over the business cycle. One argument against the voluntary-unemployment mechanism of RBC models is that if we ...
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### What is the relationship between real growth and stock market [closed]

I am interested in understanding when the stock market can influence real growth and the opposite, when real growth can influence the stock market. In other words, in which way causation is more ...