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Questions tagged [microeconomics]

Microeconomics is a branch of economics that studies the market behavior of individual actors (usually firms and consumers) and the aggregation of their actions in different institutional frameworks (usually the market).

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Numerical Question on a subsidized monopoly

Suppose a government agency has a monopoly in the provision of internet connections. The marginal cost of providing internet connections is $ \frac12$, whereas the inverse demand function is given by: ...
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Proof of monotonocity of preferences

Question from Intermediate Microeconomics by Hal Varian: "We claimed in the text that if preferences were monotonic, then a diagonal line through the origin would intersect each indifference curve ...
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2answers
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Why is Marginal Cost = Price better than Marginal Cost > Price for maximizing profit?

Isn't MC>P a better aim? Given the revenue you earn from each unit is more than cost in producing each unit?
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1answer
29 views

Marginal Cost Calculation issue

I calculated the Marginal cost for the below question. But it seems the results are wrong After coming up with an innovative idea for a new product, you paid 4000 to an industrial designer to draw ...
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1answer
36 views

Why do some perfectly competitive, loss-making firms shutdown and others don't?

Question: Why do perfectly competitive, loss-making firms that have (AC>AVC>AR) shutdown but Firms that have (AC>AR>AVC) not shutdown? -Both of these types of firms are making a loss. How is it ...
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1answer
57 views

Monopsony diagram curves

Why is the marginal cost curve not the same as the supply curve? My personal explanation is that since the marginal cost curve is cost of producing each new product, the supply curve just represents ...
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producer surplus and consmer surplus

Playland is an amusement park in Vancouver. It is located in Hastings Park and is the oldest amusement park in Canada. The regular season lasts from May to the end of September every year. a) ...
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1answer
36 views

Utility Possibility Frontier with two consumers and 3 commodities

I am trying to solve the following problem: Consider a pure exchange economy with three commodities and two households with individual endowments: $$e_1=(1,2,3), e_2=(3,2,1),$$ respectively, and ...
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1answer
36 views

Calculating Price Elasticity of Demand

Hi I was given the following price vs quantity values. ...
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1answer
25 views

Why is Walras equilibrium inefficient when we are dealing with public goods?

I know that when we have public goods we have that: $$MRT = MRS_a + MRS_b$$ Though I fail to understand why does this makes Walras equilibrium inefficient. Thank you very much for your help!
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2answers
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Best Response Functions for Cournot

For a Cournot Duopoly game with Linear Demand functions, we need to find the optimal quantity of each firm such that profit is maximised. Given the linearity of the Demand curves, we will obtain a ...
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1answer
40 views

fixed an marginal cost calculation issue

I'm trying to solve a question that is quite difficult for me. I did part of the question but, bit difficult to decide the exact answer for the below question. After coming up with an innovative ...
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2answers
41 views

Perfectly competitive firms. Economies of scale

My textbook says the following: "Perfectly competitive markets only achieve productive efficiency if you assume that there are no economies of scale in the industry." Why is this the case? And by "...
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2answers
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What's the market equilibrium price for the used good?

On a perfectly competitive market, a buyer wants to buy a used good. He is willing to pay $30$ for a badly used good, and $60$ for a nicely used good. The seller is willing to sell a badly used good ...
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1answer
27 views

Guess 2/3 of the average with integers - mixed strategy equilibria?

The "Guess 2/3 of the average" game (Wikipedia) is a game in which n people guess what 2/3 of the average of their guesses will be, and where the numbers are restricted to the integer (in this case) ...
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1answer
905 views

Sen's Liberal Paradox

Economist and philosopher Amartya Sen posited that no social system could guarantee: A minimal sense of freedom in social choice Pareto efficiency His original article can be found here. In his ...
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2answers
687 views

Difference between Giffen and inferior goods. Why aren't all inferior goods Giffen goods?

What is the difference between an inferior good and a Giffen good? Are the two following definitions for an inferior good equivalent? Def 1: An inferior good is a good for which the demand decreases ...
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2answers
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How to efficiently study and learn Economics?

I read there are a couple of questions asked in this regard, but I am not quite satisfied with the provided answers. I am currently doing my master's degree (expecting to pursue a PhD) in Economics, ...
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2answers
114 views

Why would minimum rent under franchise arrangements for McDonald's decrease year by year?

I am working on a project regarding the refranchising strategy of McDonald's and came across this piece of data in their 2014 annual report. My understanding of minimum rent is that its a fixed amount ...
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1answer
133 views

General mathematical model of incomplete contracts?

I have read various articles about incomplete contracts, like Hart's papers and Milgrom's papers. But I have not found a paper that defines mathematically, in the most general way possible, what an ...
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Which graph to use? Please help! [on hold]

I'm currently doing my uni assignment. But I'm stuck at this part. For my case, the supply of a fruit is decreasing due to its season's ending, the demand is increasing due to restaurant needing the ...
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2answers
187 views

How can perfectly competitive firms earn zero profits?

Consider a firm that chooses the quantity of labour $L$ to hire which maximises its profits. As usual, we suppose that output $Y$ is increasing in $L$ but at a strictly decreasing rate; and for ...
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Consumption behaviour and welfare [on hold]

The government of Poortopia is concerned about the impact of pervasive poverty on the health of its citizens. It is particularly concerned about the rates of malnutrition and starvation being ...
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0answers
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Indifference curves [on hold]

Im currently studying economics and I'm having some trouble with a question for an assignment. Assumed that two people have their indifference curve/s for two products uncovered. If these two people ...
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Market demand curve and industry supply curve [on hold]

Assume that there are many firms that sell mobile phones, and assume that the products are perfect substitutes so that the supply of mobile phones can be characterized as perfect competition. ...
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3answers
51 views

Is there really an “efficient equilibrium *price*” with externalities?

In the "Intro to Micro" approach to externalities, I've always felt uneasy as a teacher with the idea that there is something like an "efficient equilibrium" with a single "efficient price". To keep ...
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1answer
203 views

Perfect Bayesian Equilibria

What are the perfect Bayesian equilibria in the following game? The part that is confusing me is the right-hand side, where player 2 is of type N. Thanks! EDIT: My workings out so far are given ...
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2answers
198 views

Is it possible to give , in economics, an example of a relation ( set of ordered pairs) that is not a function?

In mathematics, some relations ( sets of ordered pairs) are not functions. I know economists make use of functions. But do they also consider relations that are not functions. In which branch of ...
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1answer
260 views

Selecting the best utility function for households

I have little to no background in micro, but I'm learning about utility functions. It seems that there are many forms of utility functions for households. In general terms, how does one go on to ...
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Calculating pareto efficient solution [on hold]

I am having difficulty solving this problem. Please help! A researcher has $100$ hours of work which have to be allocated between two research assistants, $A$ and $B$. If $A$ is allocated $x$ hours ...
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6answers
3k views

Mathematical Micro/Macro Economics Textbook Recommendation

I was formerly an economics major and now also majoring in mathematics. I want a textbook that is rigorously based on mathematics; not just using mathematcis whenever the author wants, but in a more ...
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0answers
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Does anybody know what this guy is talking about in this consumer/producer model? [on hold]

Does anybody know what this guy below is talking about? I get what's going on until he decuces a price $p = 1/g'(0.2)$. Where does that come from? _
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1answer
43 views

Utility maximization in a 2-good scenario with an option to buy a combo of the two

I am solving the following question: Suppose that we live in a two good world, books (x) and movies (y), with utility function given by $u(x,y)=min(x+2y,2x+y)$. Prices of books and movies are 25 and ...
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0answers
91 views

Queuing Discipline and Lipschitz Continuity

I was reading a paper by Platz and Østerdal (2014) titled "The curse of the first-in-first-out queue discipline". I was wondering about a particular section of it, particularly the part about last-in-...
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0answers
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What will be the Marginal Product of Labor and Marginal Product of Capital? [closed]

I didn't understand that if the change in output was zero, why wasn't the Marginal Product of Capital and Marginal Product of Labour zero? So how could they predict that the MPL and MPK were varying?
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1answer
36 views

Cournot's game profit maximisation first order condition question

My question is about the last part (I attached the rest for context). I don't understand the final line at all. I thought the first order condition would just be to set the derivative = 0. Very ...
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1answer
155 views

Marginal Revenue Interpretation of Auctions

I'm reading Klemperer's survey on auction theory (pages 17-18) which discusses the relation between traditional microeconomic price theory and the revenue equivalence result. Firstly, I don't quite ...
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1answer
17 views

Budget constraint in Radner Sequential Trade Equilibria

Suppose that $q$ is a k-tuple vector of prices for the k assets whose quantities are given by the k-tuple $\theta$. I have just read that in the Radner Sequential Trade Equilibrium (not sure if this ...
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1answer
53 views

Find a subgame perfect equilibrium and a Nash equilibrium

I want to know if my thinking is correct. Look at the following game. As the game has only one subgame (i.e., the game itself) then the Nash Equilibria will coincide with the subgame perfect ...
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1answer
30 views

Prove that in presence of many goods, the law of DMRS implies that at least one good must be a net substitute for any other good

I've been reading a book where the author claims that "if there are two goods they are always net substitutes. Along an indifference curve an increase in price of good 2 leads to less of good 2 and ...
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0answers
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Have any economics papers used unified cure models?

Does anyone know if there are unified cure models (aka split population models) in time-until-employment studies that combine the mixture cure approach with the promotion time approach as described in ...
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2answers
7k views

Income Offer Curve In Basic Microeconomics

Can anybody explain to me the income offer curve? Is it a relationship between $x_1$ and $m$? If the budget equation is $p_1x_1+p_2x_2=m$? With income being the variable $m$?
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How can I do a regression analysis of federal job training [closed]

I'm doing a research project and I need ideas for how I can do a regression analysis to see how the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (federal job training) has increased earnings of workers. ...
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1answer
45 views

Perfectly competitive constant MC Questions [closed]

If I have a market in which I have constant MC, no fixed costs, and perfect competition- when would it make sense for a new firm to enter the market(granted they have the same technology)? Would I ...
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1answer
46 views

Textbooks addressing Markov decision processes in microeconomics/game theory/decision theory?

I have learned about the Markov decision process (MDP) formalism in the context of machine learning. I know that micro theorists also study MDP's, and agent behaviour in this context (both single and ...
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1answer
151 views

intertemporal utility maximisation

Adam's consumption period 1 and 2 are denoted by $c_1$ and $c_2$ respectively. His utility function is $U(c_1,c_2)=4c_1^{0.5} + c_2$ Ben earns an income of \$3 in period 1 and \$3 in period 2, ...
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0answers
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What happens when you take double derivative of demand-supply function? [closed]

I want to know if rate of change of demand is faster near equilibrium and slower as you go away from the equilibrium. It will be like taking double derivative of demand function, I think. Is there ...
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1answer
43 views

What is the difference between solving for utility maximization separately or aggregately?

I derived the Walrasian equilibrium for an economy of two consumers with their respective utility functions (u1, u2) and initial endowments but later on I am asked to maximize (u1+u2). Does anyone ...
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1answer
108 views

Do you get economies of scope from horizontal or vertical integration?

Economies of scope: make it cheaper to produce a range of products together than produce each one on its own as company can share inputs (e.g marketing and finance) removing cost redundancy Would ...
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1answer
25 views

Ownership in Neoclassical Economics/Property Rights Question

I'm currently looking at New Institutional Economics and I can't get my head around the assumption of the neoclassical irrelevance theorem stated by the neoclassical economics. It doesn't matter ...