Questions tagged [microeconomics]

Microeconomics is a branch of economics that studies the market behavior of individual actors (usually firms and consumers) and the aggregation of their actions in different institutional frameworks (usually the market).

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1answer
34 views

Trouble Understanding the Integral Underlying Random Utility Models

Given a utility function, $U_{nj} = V_{nj} + \varepsilon_{nj}$, it makes sense that we can find the probability the decision maker $n$ chooses alternative $i$ as: $$Pr(U_{ni} > U_{nj} \forall j \...
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Selection of functional form for utility function in theoretical model

I am starting to work on an IO model and I am puzzled in front of the choice of the appropriate utility function. Since the concept of utility is so abstract, and one cannot directly refer to ...
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1answer
46 views

Revealed preference when there is no substitution effect

I've started reading about revealed preference, and in particular, how it works in the context of price changes. I understand that revealed preference can show us the general direction of the ...
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1answer
171 views

Generalizing demand for perfect substitutes utility function

I have the utility function: $U(x_1,...,x_n)=a_0+\sum_{i=1}^{n}a_ix_i\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;\;a_j\in\mathbb{R}_+ \;\;\forall j=\{0,...,n\}$ (maybe $a_0$ could be zero) $\sum_{i=1}^{n}a_i\in (0,K)\;\;\;$ ...
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1answer
100 views

Why is the opportunity cost 0 in this case?

My book says that the opportunity cost of purchase of a specialized equipment that has no alternative use is zero and hence such an expenditure is a sunk cost. However, while calculating the user cost ...
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1answer
113 views

Monopsony diagram curves

Why is the marginal cost curve not the same as the supply curve? My personal explanation is that since the marginal cost curve is cost of producing each new product, the supply curve just represents ...
2
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1answer
55 views

How did Cowen and Tabarrok calculate the probability of Hewlett-Packard sales?

The discussion on prediction markets in the chapter on the price system in Tyler Cowen and Alex Tabarrok's Modern Principles of Economics, Second Edition (pp. 123-124) contains the following ...
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1answer
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Find the set of Pareto efficient payoffs in game theory [closed]

Here I want to find Pareto efficient payoff set. The answer is (C,β), (B, β), (C, δ) But I don’t understand why? Please explain clearly this answer. Thanks a lot
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1answer
112 views

Find Price Elasticity of Demand for p = 0

Given a linear demand curve $q(p) = a - bp$, how would one find the price elasticity of demand at $p = 0$? The quantity that would be demanded is given: $Q_0 = a$ The formula for the price elasticity ...
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32 views

Why do vacationers spend more on food and essentials than the locals?

I cannot think of an answer to this question from the chapter on elasticity in Tyler Cowen and Alex Tabarrok's Modern Principles of Economics, Second Edition: How might elasticities explain why ...
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Pareto allocations and Competitive equilibrium

Consider the one-consumer one-firm economy. The consumer has preferences over leisure $l\in(0,L)$ and consumption good $x ≥ 0$ represented by utility function $u(x, l) = ax + l$, where $a > 0$ is a ...
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2answers
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Optimal Price and Quantity of Externality

I am trying to solve the following question: Let $h \geq 0$ represent a negative externality of a firm's production on one (representative) consumer. The consumer has a quasi-linear utility function ...
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1answer
8k views

Intuition behind Engel Aggregation and Cournot Aggregation

Could anyone provide a possibly intuitive and friendly explanation to the Engel Aggregation $(\sum s_i \eta_i = 1)$ and Cournot Aggregation$(\sum s_i \epsilon_{ij} = -s_j)$? Here, $s_i = \frac{p_i,x_i}...
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1answer
48 views

Calculating optimal level of negative externality

I am trying to solve the following question(s): Let $h \geq 0$ represent a negative externality of a firm's production on one (representative) consumer. The consumer has a quasi-linear utility ...
4
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1answer
248 views

How does one derive the elasticity of substitution with implicit functions?

I would like to derive the elasticity of substitution. I'm aware that such a thread with a very straightforward explanation already exists, but my case is slightly different and I'm not sure how to ...
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4answers
616 views

Envelope Paradox

There are two envelopes. One contains $x$ money and the other contains $2x$ amount of money. The exact amount "$x$" is unknown to me, but I know the above. I pick one envelope and I open it. ...
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1answer
670 views

Are spectrum auctions a tax?

According to Wikipedia, A spectrum auction is a process whereby a government uses an auction system to sell the rights to transmit signals over specific bands of the electromagnetic spectrum and to ...
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1answer
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Interior Solution for profit maximisation problem

A function $c: \mathbb{R}^K_+ \xrightarrow{} \mathbb{R}_+$ is is said to be a cost function if The value of function $c$ at $y = \textbf{0}$ is $0$: $c(\textbf{0}) = 0$ $c$ is continuous on the ...
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1answer
75 views

Multidimensional product differentiation and density functions

I’m having trouble with a model (link) I’m working on for a review. The author uses a two firms hotelling model with a multidimensional product space (x,y)with orthogonal characteristics, which are ...
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2answers
258 views

Is it right to derive social marginal benefit by adding individual prices instead of quantities?

I come across a lecture material on market functions and externalities that makes me quite confused. Here's the setup: Two stores are located next to each other. If one installs a camera system in ...
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2answers
83 views

How does “buy low, sell high” relate to supply and demand?

I'm taking introductory microeconomics, and I'm trying to consolidate my understanding by looking at some real world examples. In a perfectly competitive market, there are many consumers and suppliers ...
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1answer
438 views

intertemporal utility maximisation

Adam's consumption period 1 and 2 are denoted by $c_1$ and $c_2$ respectively. His utility function is $U(c_1,c_2)=4c_1^{0.5} + c_2$ Ben earns an income of \$3 in period 1 and \$3 in period 2, ...
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3answers
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What is the point of considering only pure strategies in a game? How could you restrict people from thinking about mixed strategy?

In an experimental setting, how could you effectively incentivize the subjects to not to adopt mixed strategy? I would like to re-emphasize that the question in concern is "how to prevent people ...
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1answer
42 views

How to compute elasticity of substituion in general?

We know that the elasticity of substitution is defined as $$ e=\frac{d \ln(x_2/x_1)}{d \ln(MRS_{12})}=\frac{\frac{d(x_2/x_1)}{x_2/x_1}}{\frac{d(MU_1/MU_2)}{MU_1/MU_2}} $$ When we compute ES for CES ...
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3answers
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Citing non-economics studies in an economics research paper

I am currently working on a paper in economics that has some dimensions that discuss women's social value. As is the case in developing countries a lot of economic studies do not exist whereas there ...
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1answer
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consumer surplus decreasing

MRU has the following question on a quiz: Suppose the government forced all bread manufacturers to sell their products at a “fair price” that was half the current, free-market price. To keep it ...
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5answers
1k views

list of math intense graduate level microeconomics books?

List of math intense graduate level microeconomics books? Except Reny's book, krep's books, varian's book and mas-collell's book books from subfields are acceptable, however by math intense i mean ...
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1answer
132 views

Seemingly simple consumer theory problem

A function $v: \mathbb{R}^K_+ \xrightarrow{} \mathbb{R}_+$ is is said to be a valuation function if The value of function $v$ at $x = \textbf{0}$ is $0$: $v(\textbf{0}) = 0$ $v$ is continuous on the ...
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1answer
114 views

Math based proof for currency changes (microeconomics)

This isn't part of my homework but I am genuinely interested in the mathematical proof behind this question (this is my line of work currently). I tried to work through it but after 2 hours gave up. ...
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1answer
47 views

Accounting profit in macroeconomics as compared to microeconomics

In Macroeconomics (2019) on p.103, it is argued that the reason there exists profit in an economy is that most firms own rather than rent capital. Thus: But, Microeconomics assumes a different ...
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1answer
51 views

What kind of tax diagram can show the full consumer tax burden?

If a government increases a purchase tax on an apartment, the tax will be fully burdened by the consumer, as the "producer" will simply be the owner of the house. But in a diagram, should ...
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1answer
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How can I know whether a good is inferior or normal? I can't determine elasticity with this?

I just need to make sense out of elasticities and how to determine if a good is normal or inferior. I have determined by $X_1$ which is in the form $m/p_1 - p_1/p_2$, that I should just take the ...
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0answers
32 views

Order-driven vs quote-driven markets

What is the difference between order driven and quote driven markets? Is there any theoretical microstructure book that gives the intuition behind the types of markets with respect to the orders that ...
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1answer
82 views

Why do most function images take the form of a curve? [closed]

I always see curves (such as in dark blue below) and not any other type of (function) image. May I get a reason for why it is always like that? This figure is only for representation.
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1answer
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I need to prove how an increase in output p increases profit-max. Can someone help to understand why IFT implies that z is a unique maximizing point? [closed]

MWG 5C6 asks: "Suppose a concave prod function f(z) with inputs $(z_1,...,z_L-1)$ and also that $\partial f(z))/\partial z_l \geqslant 0$ for all l and $z\geqslant0$ and that $D^2f(z)$ is ...
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1answer
69 views

Can I rename a utility function based on its properties?

A big name researcher gives a name to a specific utility function 30 years ago. Now I am writing a paper and feel that a new name might be more suited because of the properties associated with the ...
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0answers
33 views

Why car rental companies have different models in the same group?

When booking a car, car rental companies do not guarantee that a specific model will be available. Normally they can only guarantee you'll get a model in the same category (or above). For example, you ...
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1answer
40 views

Is M&A valuation a good proxy for company fair value?

I'm building a model for estimating a fair value of a company. Naturally I'd like to see if model's predicative capabilities are any good. Would using a value of a friendly M&A deal be a good ...
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0answers
52 views

Choice under Uncertainty: Relation between the certainty equivalent and the coefficient of relative risk aversion

That's my question! Propositon 6.C.4 (MWG (1995)): The following conditions for a Bernoulli utility function $u(\cdot)$ on amounts of money are equivalent: (i) $r_R(x,u)$ is decreasing in $x$. (iii) ...
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0answers
32 views

Demand Function in monopoly [duplicate]

I am studying monopoly and I see that most exercises use inverse demand. why use the inverse demand function instead of the demand function?
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1answer
49 views

Why does supply equal demand? Problem if large increase of price, decreases demand only by a bit

I have looked at my coursenotes and this thread here:Why does supply equal demand?, but they did not adress, why I do not understand the law of supply and demand. The way I understand this law is the ...
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0answers
119 views

Looking for an universal utility function

I'm trying to build a computer simulation of an economy which separate simulation for each household and I'm trying to figure out what utility function should I use to model the households behavior. I ...
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0answers
49 views

Short, Medium and Long-Run Profit Maximization

Suppose that, in a perfectly competitive industry, the firms' technology have the following cost function: $C(x) = 100 + 3x + 0.04x^2$. Assume the fixed costs are sunken. a) If the demand for the ...
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4answers
2k views

The Sonnenschein-Mantel-Debreu results, what are the implications for macroeconomics?

I have always wondered why such a negative result such as Sonnenschein–Mantel–Debreu theorem (SMD) theorem is usually ignored or disregarded by practitioners, specially in macro. The result roughly ...
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maximization program with a discount factor in monopoly with learning by doing

I would know something about the multiproduct monopoly. In the case with independent demands and costs dependents, it is in the case with only 1 physical good sold out of 2 periods. For example (...
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2answers
106 views

How to derive substitution and income effect using Slutsky equation if we don't know which of the prices change?

We have the utility function $$U(x,y)=x + y$$ and we have to derive the substitution and income effects using Slutsky equation. But after I derive the Hicksian demand functions for e.g. x: $$h_x= \...
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1answer
80 views

Shapley Value - Any Real World Applications?

The Shapley Value has been around for seven decades now. It is intuitive, tractable, and has many desirable properties. To my surprise, however, its actual applications in the real world are not ...
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1answer
48 views

Migration wage differential, Borjas (2013) textbook

Basic calculus question here! I started reading the textbook Borjas, G. J. (2014). Immigration economics. Harvard University Press and am confused already with the first result. Background: He frames ...
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1answer
40 views

Why wouldn't other firms follow suit if an individual firm decides to cut its price?

Why doesn't the demand curve an individual firm faces in a perfectly competitive market have the same elasticity as it does in a oligopolistic market? Under perfect competition, if a firm increases ...
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1answer
114 views

How is the defintion of the mean preserving spread (MPS) not too general?

The mean preserving spread is defined as follows: Consider two lotteries g and h. Let $x_g$ und $x_h$ denote the corresponding random variables. Then h is a mean preserving spread (MPS) of g, if: $...

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