Questions tagged [microeconomics]

Microeconomics is a branch of economics that studies the market behavior of individual actors (usually firms and consumers) and the aggregation of their actions in different institutional frameworks (usually the market).

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1answer
95 views

Is it possible to calculate how long it will take to reach Break Even Point if the information provided is only an ROI (Return On Investment) of 10%?

Is it possible to calculate how long it will take to reach Break Even Point if the information provided is only an ROI (Return On Investment) of 10%? Only ROI is provided. If there is a way to ...
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undergrad Producer theory problem [closed]

Two commodities, X and Y, are produced with identical technology and are sold in competitive markets. One unit of labour can produce one unit of each of the two commodities. Labour is the only ...
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1answer
223 views

Is there an economic term for decreased demand due to expected decrease in price due to a product's value lasting for a finite amount of time

So, at work we are doing a charity bake sale. Lunch hour is long gone. An email was sent out offering everything at half price. I imagine decreased demand as everyone knows they have to get rid of ...
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Is elasticity purely an aggregate concept or can it be individualized

First question here. I am not an economist by training, but I do quite a bit of econometric analysis in my job (my background is maths). I often get asked about elasticity, and I am familiar with ...
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418 views

Altruism and locally non-satiated preferences

Is there an altruistic utility function that cannot represent a locally non-satiated preference? As an example of an altruistic utility function: $U^1(x^1,...,x^H)=u^1(x^1)+\sum^H_{j=2}U^j(x^j)$, ...
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3answers
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Literature Recommendation: Advanced Undergraduate Economics

I come from a strong quantitative background and am going to law school in the fall. I'm interested in financial product regulation and competition law. I have taken an introductory course in ...
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1answer
317 views

Muth exposition of the rational expectations hypothesis

I am reading in statistical decision theory and stumbled upon the rational expectations literature (rationality with incomplete information->dynamic problem->N.L Stokey->husband). The assumption that ...
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2answers
8k views

Find the optimal demand functions for capital and labour for this firm

I'm trying to solve this question which states: Suppose that a profit maximizing producer has a production function described by Q = K^3/4 L^1/4 and faces the general isocost line (TC = rK + wL). ...
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1answer
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Estimate function expression for TC and MC

I have this Labor (L) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Output 0 32 72 114 161 204 242 272 292 304 302 288 and I need to estimate function expressions for $TC$, $AVC$, and $...
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1answer
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How does Perfect Elasticity imply infinite quantity for any higher price?

I reference Principles of Microeconomics, 7 Ed, 2014, by NG Mankiw. The graph above is from p 100. [p 99:] ...supply is perfectly elastic. This occurs as the price elasticity of supply approaches ...
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Consumer Theory - Relationship between compensating variation (CV) and the equivalent variation (EV)

John consumes two products – X and Y and his preferences are represented by an unknown utility function – u(x,y) (we may assume his indifference curves are well-behaved). His income is m, while the ...
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Delegation with Discreteness

Consider a game of delegation. An uninformed principal must delegate some task to an informed agent with preferences imperfectly aligned. I'm aware of plenty of literature that studies these kinds of ...
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15k views

Deriving Equation for Engel Curve

I have a utility function of $U = B^{.67}Z^{.33}$ with Income $Y$, Price of Good B is $P_b$ and price of Z is $P_z$ I now need to derive an engel curve for this. I have no idea where to start.
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Intuition: Difference in price elasticities of demand due to different bases

Source: pp 91-92, Principles of Microeconomics, 7 Ed, 2014, by N Gregory Mankiw If you try calculating the price elasticity of demand between two points on a demand curve, you will quickly ...
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1answer
82 views

How to determine demand without the price of a good?

If I have the utility function of an individual that exhibits perfect substitutes, think (U=ax+by), and I'm given the price of good x and the budget M, then how am I supposed to determine the demand ...
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What is an example of a choice which is not necessitated by scarcity?

I am first year economics student and for the past month we have had it constantly drilled into us that all choices have an opportunity cost and thus they are all necessitated by scarcity. Thus when I ...
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1answer
430 views

When a relevant variable unnamed on either axis changes, can the curve NOT shift?

Source: pp 40-41, Principles of Microeconomics, 7 Ed, 2014, by N Gregory Mankiw her demand curve would shift to the left (to curve D3). In economics, it is important to distinguish between ...
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1answer
798 views

Why do firms bother to produce at equilibrium quantities if at equilibrium quantity, MR < MC?

For almost all demand curves, the resulting marginal revenue curve is often to the left of and steeper than the demand curve. The marginal cost curve has its distinctive U-shape, and a particular ...
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1answer
688 views

Impact of government subsidy on labour supply

If the government pays a certain amount $b>0$ to every person who is not working, what is the impact of this subsidy on labour supply? How does it alter the reservation wage? Is your answer ...
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455 views

Why are we taking the logarithm for risk-averse decision-makers?

I'm a mathematics student learning a bit of Game theory. Many examples are given within a very economic setting and up to know I could follow most of it because they were very basic and I learnt some ...
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Do capital goods have to be valued so that (discounted) real expected return on capital goods equal current present value of capital goods?

Let $P_k$ be the value of 1 quantity of a capital good. If one does not sell the capital good and keep it, the good provides interests. In such a case, does standard macro say that all expected ...
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2answers
119 views

Does price affect quantity or vice versa?

On nearly all graphs found within economics textbooks, quantity is label on the x-axis and price on the y-axis, implying that the quantity supplied affects the price. Is this really so? Intuition ...
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Perfect competition: Finding short run equilibrium price?

I am trying to self teach myself some Economics, I am using an old textbook given to me by a friend, which does not contain an answer key. I have run into the following problem and I was wondering if ...
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1answer
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Solving for optimal consumption bundle

Consider a consumer who can consume either A or B, with the quantities being denoted by $a$ and $b$ respectively. If the utility function of the consumer is given by $$-[(10-a)^2+(10-b)^2]$$(suppose ...
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How to find walrasian asignations? [closed]

In a economy Arrow Debreau of pure exchange with two agents and two goods. With utility function of Leontief for agent B, where $U_b(x_b,y_b)=\min(x_b,y_b)$; and for agent A a simple Cobb-Douglas $U_a(...
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161 views

Impact of working capital constraints onto output

I'm looking for empirical evidence (optimally from natural experiments, as described below) of the impact of working capital constraints onto firm output, and the differentials of firm size. I ...
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Where can I find quarterly/monthly medicare/medicaid state level drug utilization data

I read a paper titled 'State generic substitution laws can lower drug outlays under medicaid'. It uses quarterly state level medicaid drug utilization data. However, I could only find yearly data at ...
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894 views

Suitable terminology for the inverse elasticity?

In many microeconomic applications (e.g. monopoly price-setting) the inverse elasticity appears. Explaining such relations to laymen is often awkward because inverse proportionality is not as ...
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1answer
465 views

If all firms in an economy are in monopolistic competition with constant elasticity of substitution, can they profit-maximize at $MC=MR=AC$?

Suppose all firms are monopolistically competitive with constant elasticity of substitution. Can they profit maximize at the quantity point $MC=AC$ (So $P \neq MC$ but $Q$ is set at where $MC=MR=AC$ ...
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1answer
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Basic microeconomics: supply, demand and substitutes in production

The question is: explain the change in the market for skim milk, if demand for ice cream rises. I'd say these two are unrelated in consumption (saying they're substitutes is kind of stretching it), ...
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Books for microeconomics and macroeconomics for selected topics

I am a mathematics undergraduate trying to self-learn some economics. I have no background in economics. I wish to know from which chapters of Hal Varian's "Intermediate Microeconomics" (7th edition) ...
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1answer
359 views

Converting word definitions of Pareto-Optimal into math symbols

I'd like to have a mathematical version of the following two definitions just because I remember symbols better than words. But I lack the math prowess to convert them from words to symbols. Can ...
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1answer
170 views

Random Choice interpretation

Due to McFadden Economists usually interpret Random Choice, in the population sense, as each DM being drawn from the probabilistic choice rule independently and identically. However, Psychologist have ...
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2answers
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When using consumables consider the purchase or market price?

Say I use two fuels to heat my home (space heating): oil and wood. I purchase both in bulk, at a price decided at the time of purchase. Wood is cheaper per kWh, but I purchase both because oil has ...
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1answer
385 views

Intuition behind the linkage principle

An important result in auction theory is Milgrom & Weber's linkage principle, which, roughly, holds that the expected revenue from an auction is higher is the seller commits ex ante to reveal as ...
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2answers
197 views

Why does $\frac{MP_L}{MP_K} = \frac{w}{r}$?

I did a practice problem set. I was given a production function $F(K,L)$ and had to derive the firm's cost function. To do this, I used the following relationship: \begin{equation} \frac{MP_L}{MP_K}=...
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Difference between 'surplus' and 'welfare'

I see these two terms used interchangeably but I have the feeling they are not exactly the same. My gut feeling tells me this: 1) Surplus is the additional aggregate utility from the existence of one ...
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3answers
234 views

Collusion model with imperfect public monitoring

It is well known that consumers' intertemporal incentives may play a key role on the potential of firms to sustain collusion. To my knowledge, most previous efforts studying the topic have assumed ...
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2answers
546 views

Oligopolistic producers and retail price wars

Consider an industry with few producers selling differentiated products. The products must be sold through retailers of whom also there are a few and who therefore possess some degree of market power. ...
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1answer
161 views

Random Utility interpretation

Can someone explain intuitively, the Block-Marschack Polynomials that completely characterize random utility.
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Is non-monotonic local non-satiation supported by consumer theory in economics?

In general (Walrasian) equilibrium, local non-satiation is one of the assumptions that guarantee existence of equilibrium. Question is, is non-monotonic local non-satiation preference supported by ...
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1answer
280 views

How is labor disutility modeled in Arrow-Debreu model?

In DSGE models, utility function contains labor disutility components. But I cannot not see how labor disutility is incorporated in Arrow-Debreu-Mackenzie model.
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1answer
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Is special case of utility function in “Intertemporal Substitution in Macroeconomics” also a special case of a Ramsey growth model utility function?

So in RBC and Ramsey-derived utility function, the following is usually the form of utility: $$u(c,l) = c^{1-\sigma}(1 + \omega(l))$$ where $\omega(l)$ is arbitrary function of $l$, labor, that ...
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What is the advantage and disadvantage to have a high value of USD for USA?

What is the advantage and disadvantage to have a high value of USD for USA? China and Japan always want to keep their currency low as oppose to USA.
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1answer
201 views

Does rioting impair the economy?

In this article, the author looks at some of the indirect effects caused by the rioting in Ferguson, Missouri after the jury's decision not to indict the police officer. He explains that the rioting ...
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1answer
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why is real wage divided by marginal product of labor often called real marginal cost?

As said in the title, why is real wage divided by marginal product of labor often called real marginal cost? In mathematical formula, $mc_t = (W_t/P_t)/MPN_t$ where $MPN_t$ refers to marginal product ...
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Are there any economic studies of License-On-Transfer agreements?

A recent entry at GitHub's blog caught my attention: https://github.com/LOT. The "network" claims to provide protection from patent trolls by entering into an agreement automatically granting all ...
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514 views

Is it possible to derive indifference curves given marshallian demand function?

In a two good world, will a marshallian demand function the likes of D(p,m) where p is the price of one good and m the income yield a utility function or ...
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1answer
260 views

Usage of natural gas in 1970 (where was the demand elasticity?)

The following historical graph of US Marketable Natural Gas volume has me puzzled: How was the gas used in 1970 (a peak production period), given that we would seem to be using a lot more gas now? ...
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882 views

Are there theories that invalidate the “tragedy of the commons”?

Wikipedia states: The tragedy of the commons is an economics theory by Garrett Hardin, according to which individuals, acting independently and rationally according to each one's self-interest, ...