Questions tagged [microeconomics]

Microeconomics is a branch of economics that studies the market behavior of individual actors (usually firms and consumers) and the aggregation of their actions in different institutional frameworks (usually the market).

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Micro foundations of the Phillips Curve

In a typical NKPC: $Inflation_t = \alpha_1 Inflation_{t-1} + (1-\alpha_1) \mathbb{E}_tInflation_{t+1} + \alpha_2 RealMarginalCost + \epsilon_t$ From a micro-foundations perspective, does the ...
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Can a rescue package be considered as a subsidy to the industry?

In the BBC article, France announces €8bn rescue plan for car industry, it is mentioned that the car industry will be given a rescue package to avoid unemployment. Would this be considered as a ...
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Reason behind the decomposition of price effect into substitution and income effects

I was studying the decomposition of price effect into substitution and income effects. I am finding it a bit complicated. This is what I have understood: (0) Let us assume that there are two ...
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Lerner Index Interpretation?

How do you interpret the Lerner Index? I ask because at Uni. we have been told that, for monopoly, when the producer max. his profit, he sets the price such as the demand is elastic and the lerner ...
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Grab the dollar Bayesian game

$\epsilon_i$ is distributed uniformly on $[-\phi, \phi] $ where $\phi>1$. My working so far is as follows: $$\mathbb{E}U_1[I]=1+\epsilon_1\\\mathbb{E}U[N]=0\\$$ Therefore, the optimal strategy for ...
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1answer
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The law of supply and demand - How does it work?

I've learned what the principle of supply and demand says, and would paraphrase it like this: The price of a good is at equilibrium when supply and demand are equal. Or with other words: The price ...
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Farmer and owner Bayesian game

A farmer has talent $\theta$ uniformly distributed on $[0,1]$. His payoff from farming his land is $\theta.$ Before setting up his farm, he chooses some $w\geq0$, which a plant owner can either accept ...
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How to prove that a function is a positive montone transformation

Consider the utility function $$ U(x_1,x_2) = x_1^\alpha x_2^\beta $$ for $0 < \alpha, \beta < 1$. How do I then show that $$ V(x_1,x_2) = F(U(x_1,x_2)) = \frac{\alpha}{\beta} \ln(x_1) + \ln(...
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Percentage of workforce change, with two PPFs

A hypothetical economy produces two goods, X and Y. The performance (yield) for every worker is steady, and every worker for Y can produce 10 units of product. If $L_x+L_Y=200 $ (meaning that the ...
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Trying to apply in practice the theory of finding the optimal price in a cournot competition

I recently received my bachelors degree in economics. For fun I wanted to try to apply some micro-economic theory of finding the optimal price in a cournot competition. I wanted to do this for a ...
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Two interpretations of the Lagrange Multiplier

A question about the second answer on this thread: Help understanding Lagrangian multipliers? If we have a standard utility maximizing problem $$ \max_{x,y} U(x,y) $$ with the constraint $p_{x}x + ...
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Decreasing and increasing returns to scale question

Hi, I have deduced that this function exhibit increasing returns to scale but I am not sure how to verify part d. My answer doesn't show that there is decreasing returns to scale but I can't be sure d ...
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What is the difference between the demand schedule and the demand curve?

What is the difference between the demand schedule and the demand curve that a monopolist or monopsonist has? Could someone provide details for both cases or even some paradigm or a graph. I can not ...
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1answer
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Tadelis ‘trading places’ Bayesian game

My question concerns the following problem: two players, $1$ and $2$, each owns a house. Each player $i$ values his own house at $v_{i}$. The value of player $i$'s house to the other player, i.e. to ...
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Revenues and cost functions

Let's assume that there is a firm that produces a single good, $q=f(x)$, where $x$ is a single input. The firm can sell it on the market at a price $p$. It's production cost is given by a cost ...
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1answer
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Price Changes in Factor and Product Markets

I think something is wrong in my reasoning, and I can't really find out what it is Lets say the supply of labor decreases in a market. That would mean that the wage rate would increase in that market....
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Opportunity cost of goods provided free of cost

If the government of a country decides to provide certain good free of cost to its citizens, what can one say about the opportunity cost? Government is certainly using the revenues raised from the ...
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What does it mean if a economic model is internally consistent?

What does it mean if a economic model is internally consistent? What happens if it is not? Is it not closed anymore? Can it still be solved? Does it still have an equilibrium?
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1answer
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Short Run Total Cost function Question

I am confused about the Short Run Total Cost function of this problem. If the firm's production function is $F(K,L) = K+\ln(L)$ derive the short run total cost function. I was able to solve the ...
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Does consumer surplus over-weigh the interests of high-income consumers?

An individual's willingness to pay for a good not only depends on how much they value that good, but also on their income level (at least under the conventional non-economics definition of the word '...
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3answers
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Why is the tat-for-tat strategy a Nash equilibrium in infinitely repeated games?

Why is the tat-for-tat strategy a Nash equilibrium in infinitely repeated games, but not a Nash equilibrium in a finite scenario? Specifically for this matrix: Assume higher payoffs reflect higher ...
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Is there a standard term for this tradeoff when subsidizing: inducing dependence vs providing support?

I've often heard it informally argued "people will become lazy if you give them handouts". Although I doubt the economic sophistication of most such assertions, I do think they have a real point: you ...
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1answer
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Should I include country dummies when I combine datasets of 3 countries?

I am currently doing the analysis using firm-level data of three countries combining together. Also, it is a cross-sectional analysis. Therefore, in the regression, I control for industry dummies to ...
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What would we say on the utility of risk and its consequences?

Anything has its risks and anything has its utility or desutility. The risk aversion causes a looking for safer alternatives in the market which maximizes utility in a trading off between risk and ...
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1answer
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Why does the aggregate consumer spending decrease due to to lower expected future disposable income instead of MPC?

This illustration is from Krugman's macroeconomics textbook, it's supposed to illustrate following situation (assuming that it happened for many people): Conversely, suppose you have a good job but ...
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Is there a case where the demand of a consumer with monotonic preferences, does not fall on the budget line?

In other words, apart from (weakly) monotonic preferences are there any other necessary conditions for Walras's Law? Does monotonicity imply completeness and transitivity?
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Income Elasticity of Demand vs. shift in demand curve

I've just read an econ textbook and want to verify a statement/definition about income elasticity of demand. Changes in income shift the demand curve, and we can measure the responsiveness of demand ...
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1answer
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Help understanding definition of expected utility function

This is the definition of an expected utility function that I'm working with: The utility function $U:\mathcal{L}\to\mathbb{R}$ has an expected utility form if there is an assignment of numbers $(u_{...
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The envelope theorem and Viner's draftsman

In 1931 Viner wrote the paper "Cost Curves and Supply Curves" that famously contained the following mistake: Viner had asked the draftsman to draw the long run average cost curve so that it was ...
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making a utility model for CO2 compensating travel demand

I'm trying to make a model which is build around the idea of carbon offsetting fuel (the consumer pays an extra fee per litre fuel for the compensation of the emitted CO2). The goal here is to make a ...
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1answer
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Efficiency in Auctions

Consider a finite number of bidders, each bidding for a single indivisible object, with private independent values from some probability distribution. There are 2 intuitive notions of (ex-post) ...
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Income effect for complements

Suppose u(x,y)=min(x,2y) and the price of X is 1, the price of Y is 1 and income is $12. If the price of X increases to 2, the income effect is supposed to be -1. I keep getting zero for some reason. ...
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Is this a violation of the law of demand? [closed]

Beach resorts typically raise their prices during the summer months and yet more people book rooms at those times. Is this a violation of the law of demand? If so, why? If not, how would you be able ...
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How to find the Utility Possibility Frontier when there are Perfect Substitutes?

I am trying to derive the Utility Possibility Frontier (UPF) when both utility functions display perfect substitutes (in an Edgeworth economy with to consumers and two goods). The specific problem: $...
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Are there economic studies surrounding the efficacy of gun control?

In light of a recent mass shooting in Nova Scotia, the Prime Minister of Canada intends to ban a lot of firearms. I have seen both sides of this debate, notably whether or not gun control is an ...
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Equivalent Variation of Price Change

If Bernice (whose utility function is min {x; y} where x is her consumption of earrings and y is money left for other stuff ) had an income of \$12 and was paying a price of \$3 for earrings when the ...
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How to derive utility possibility frontier?

I'm trying to derive the utility possibility frontier of a economy whose consumption contract curve is $$y_A = \frac {y} {x} x_A$$ and $$y_B = \frac {y} {x} x_B$$where $x_A + x_B = x$ and $y_A + y_B= ...
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Why is the demand, supply and Engel curves plotted with the dependant variable in the X axis and the independent variable in the Y axis?

I am new to economics and have read the first 7 chapters in Intermediate microeconomics by Hal R Varian. Throughout the text, graphs are drawn with the dependent variable (Quantity) in X and ...
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Can there be elasticity for income in an inferior good, when the price is out of its limits?

(Skip to 3. for the actual problem I am facing. Everything else is just to help you understand it better up to that point) Two goods $X$ and $Y$ are substitutionals. For $P_X=20$ consumers ask for $Q_{...
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How accurate is duality?

In economic theory we know that with the use of some calculus, Hotellings Lemma and Sheppards lemma we can derive a given firms supply function and in term its Profit function. With data of a given ...
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Is there a definition for ROAS that is not dimensionless?

The most common definitions for ROAS are revenue/cost and (revenue - cost)/cost or ...
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How do you calculate the price of a good or service adjusted for scarcity?

For example, Widget A is worth \$100 when there are 50 of them available in the market, but the price goes up to $110 when there are only 40 of them left. Widget B is worth \$100 when there are 50 ...
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Returns to Scale off a figure

This is the table given for levels of output for different levels of inputs. \begin{pmatrix} Q & K & L\\ 100 & 3 & 6\\ 200 & 5 & 10\\ 300 & 7.5 & 15 \\ 400 & 10 &...
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What is an example of a choice which is not necessitated by scarcity?

I am first year economics student and for the past month we have had it constantly drilled into us that all choices have an opportunity cost and thus they are all necessitated by scarcity. Thus when I ...
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Elasticity of substitution of a general production function with labor-augmenting technological progress

I am following and trying to fully understand a famous and interesting work of Bentolila and Saint-paul (2003). They try to explain movements of the factor's share in terms of a relationship between ...
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Monotonic transformation of utility functions [duplicate]

Why taking monotonic transformation of a utility function does not change marginal rate of substitution?
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Can we have a Non-Reflexive Preference Relation?

I've been thinking about preferences alot recently and have been specifically thinking about the reflexivity requirement. That is: $$x \succsim x$$ Though this is apparent and obvious, I have been ...
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1answer
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By buying stocks, am I as an individual measurably affecting the economy?

I know that participating in an IPO is directly helping the company, because my money is going straight into their bank account. I know that the stock market as a whole has an effect on the economy. ...
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Can we consider a supermarket as a market?

Good morning, I have been reading a book in which the author said that "the supermarket is not a market, because despit the large number of buyers, the seller is unique". So, I've been wondering ...
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If public roads are public goods, in what way are they non-rivalrous?

I get why, say, the military is a public good, but I don't get why public roads are public goods, since they can't be non-rivalrous, given that at any time only a subset of the population can actually ...

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