# Questions tagged [microeconomics]

Microeconomics is a branch of economics that studies the market behavior of individual actors (usually firms and consumers) and the aggregation of their actions in different institutional frameworks (usually the market).

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### For what values of K will the monopolist choose to make and sell only high quality cars?

A monopoly auto manufacturer produces cars and can choose the quality of the car produced. Let x be a measure of quality, and assume that the marginal cost of a unit of quality is constant and equal ...
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### Mean preserving spread of a lottery

Suppose G is a lottery where the payoff is equal to -1 with 0.5 probability and 1 with 0.5 probability. I'm trying to show that G is a mean preserving spread of a lottery with uniform distribution on [...
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### Long Run Model of Oligopolies After Recession

I am currently investigating about the long run impact of the COVID 19 to the US airline industry. Is there any specific (long-run) model that I can use for oligopolies (for 4 main companies)? Because ...
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### In revealed preference (RP), is any two points $x,y$ related by the indirect revealed preference relation?

Let $X$ be the closed compact convex set of alternative and $B$ be a closed compact convex subset of $X$. $C$ is defined on all closed compact convex set $B\subseteq X$. $X$ is ordered by a strictly ...
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### Conditions for an interior solution to the UMP

I was wondering under what set of conditions one is allowed to assume an interior solution to the Utility Maximisation Problem. In most of my classes and lecture notes, interior solutions are assumed ...
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### Why does the Substitution effect always have to be negative?

I understand why the income effect can be positive or negative depending if the good is normal or inferior. but why does the substitution effect always have to be non-positive?
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### A question about an exercise in Hal R. Varian, Microeconomic Analysis (1984), Ch.3 Exercises 3.1 (c), Page 48

I have a question on the following exercise: A competitive profit-maximizing firm has a profit function $\pi(w_1, w_2) = \phi_1(w_1) + \phi_2(w_2)$. The price of output is normalized to be 1. (c). ...
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### Find a choice function such that WARP or SARP is violated

WARP implies choice function is raionalizable. Say we have a choice function $C(B)$, $B$ is a closed convex compact set. I am looking for a intuitive example of $C$. The $C$ is economic meaningful, ...
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### Can FOSD-transitivity replace the transitivity in utility representation theorem?

Let $\succsim$ be a complete, non transitivity preference relation. I wonder if FOSD-transitivity implies transitivity. The primitive is the space of lotteries $p_1,p_2,p_3,...$. We say the preference ...
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### Can a Subgame Perfect Equilbrium consist of a weakly dominated action?

I was reviewing the Market Entry game and observed that 'being mean to the entrant' is weakly dominated by 'being nice to the entrant.' Coincidentally, 'being nice to the entrant' is also part of the ...
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### About Theorem 3.5 (The Finite-Approximation Theorem) in Game Theory: Analysis of Conflict by Roger Myerson

I am study infinite strategy set using Myerson's Game Theory textbook. The author stated the following theorem (Theorem 3.5) but did not prove it. I tried the proof, and would really appreciate it if ...
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### What is a very very famous example of structural estimation?

I took a behavioral econ class and learnt the "structural estimation" of risk-aversion parameter. Later some friends told me that what I learnt is too simple when I was bragging about my ...
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### If utility function is convex, what can be said about preference relation?

It is known that if a utility function is concave, then it is quasiconcave, and the preference relation is convex. What can be said if a utility function is convex? I've found on the Internet then in ...
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### About infinite strategy sets and $\epsilon$-equilibrium from Game Theory: Analysis of Confilct by Roger Myerson

I am studying infinite strategy sets using Myerson's Game Theory: Analysis of Conflict. On Page 143, he defines an $\epsilon$-equilibrium as follows: Definition For any nonnegative number $\epsilon$, ...
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### If utility function is homogenous of order 1, then partial derivatives of demand function are equal

Prove that if $U(\alpha x)=\alpha U(x)$, then $$\frac{\partial x_i(p,w)}{\partial p_j}=\frac{\partial x_j(p,w)}{\partial p_i}$$ for any $i$ and $j$. I've proved that $x(p,\alpha w)=\alpha x(p,w)$, but ...
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### How could a market be designed to prevent hoarding?

Imagine that someone has been put in charge of creating a new market for some kind of commodity. They have ultimate regulatory power. What kind of market mechanisms could they put in place to ...
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### How to compare Preferences in Utility Functions?

When looking at utility functions, how do you compare preferences? I understand the economic concepts, but the math part is holding me down from understanding a lot in the textbook. (I am not typing ...
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### Help Understanding AP Micro MCQ re: Monopolistically Competitive Firm's Demand Elasticity

Here is the question: A monopolistically competitive firm’s demand curve will be least elastic if A - the number of rival firms producing very similar products increases B - the number of rival firms ...
1 vote
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### Why is the budget correspondence lower hemicontinuous?

Given income $y$ and a vector of commodity prices $p\in R_+^L$, the set of feasible consumption bundles is described by the budget correspondence, $B(p,y)=\{x\in R_+^L:px\leq y\}$. $B(p,y)$ is both ...
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### Dynamic price competition with capacity constraints

I have a dynamic price (Bertrand) competition with 2 players with the same capacity constraints. Grim trigger strategy is to set monopoly price at t=0 or if the monopoly price was set by both players ...
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### Explaining the relative share of the income & substitution effects of a price change

Let's say you have a Cobb-Douglas utility function, U = x^.1*y^.9 This will result in Marshallian demand functions x* = .1I / Px, and y* = .9I / Py. If you perform a Slutsky decomposition for x* as Px ...
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### MCQ on income and substitution effects

Person A spends their income only on bread and cheese. Given a rise in the price of bread leaving income constant and the price of cheese constant, the consumer consumes less bread and less cheese. ...
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### Exponential Income Consumption Curve

From the Engel's Law we know that as income increases the share of income spent of foods decreases and the share of income spent on luxury goods increases. I wanted to represent this using Consumer ...
1 vote
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### Equilibrium of Perturbed Dollar Auction Game - An Example from Game Theory: Analysis of Conflict by Roger Myerson

I am studying game theory using Myerson's textbook (Chapter 3 - Equilibria of Strategic-Form Games, Section 3.6 - The Decision-Analytic Approach to Games). I have difficulties understanding and ...
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### non-ponzi condition

What Is The Differences Between R(T) And R(S) In No-Ponzi Condition In Ramsey Growth Model?
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### Ramsey model problem

Explain the no-Ponzi game condition throughout the function. Does the constrain function: also reflect include the No-Ponzi condition?
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### Debreu's ordinal representation theorem is unique up to a positive monotonic transformation, what is the source?

In Debreu's 1954 ordinal utility representation theorem, the utility is unique up to a positive monotonic transformation. While the uniqueness result is well-known, I fail to find a proper reference. ...
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### Deadweight loss and consumption externalities

here's the problem and my solution so far: In this case, the Marginal Private Benefit (MPB) is given by the equation MPB = 100 - 4q and the Marginal Social Cost (MSC) is given by the equation MSC = ...
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### why is the MRS same for everyone?

If the consumers are optimizing and at interior solutions and facing the same prices, then the MRS=p1/p2 will be the same for everyone no matter the preferences and income. but why? I don't understand ...
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### Question About Stochastic Choice - MWG Exercise 1.D.5

I am studying microeconomic theory using MWG. I got stuck on Exercise 1.D.5, specifically part (c), but I would also like to have my part (a) and (b) checked by someone. Here is the exercise and my ...
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### Deriving Unit cost function

Unit cost function is the minimum cost to produce one unit of output. The solution to the above problem is: where ai(w,r) is the amount of labour needed to produce 1 unit of good i at factor prices (...
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### Cost Minimization

Guys in the following optimisation problem why are we not considering the partial derivate of K and L in the Lagrangian in the first two equations
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### Calculating the value of this asset

calculate the cash value of a financed asset that is paid in the following way: an initial payment of 500,000, in month 2 a payment equal to half its value, in month 7 a payment equal to a third of ...
1 vote
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### Why is monotonic preference and monotonic utility function non-decreasing?

Obviously a monotonic function can be either nondecreasing or nonincreasing: However, in Economics, a quick google search gives: I am interested in the history or the motivation behind the econ ...
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### why is increasing price not more profitable when the demand is unitary elastic?

according to the theory (if p-p1=q-q1), the total revenue remains the same because the demand decreases by the same percentage price does. If this is the elasticity of a product, the company ...
1 vote
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### Price elasticity of demand when total expenditure is constant

I was recently given the following question: assuming that a consumer's total expenditure for a good does not change when the price of that good declines, what is the price elasticity of that consumer'...
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### Increasing Returns to Scale and Perfect Competition

Increasing returns to scale due to internal economies are incompatible with perfect competition BUT increasing returns to scale due to external economies are compatible with perfect competition SOURCE:...
1 vote
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### direction of causality between Increasing returns to scale and economies of scale

Does increasing returns to scale cause economies of scale OR is it the other way around?
1 vote
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### the relationship between Returns to Scale and shape of Production Possibility Frontier (PPF)?

Guys any material that discusses the above in detail for a two commodity case?
1 vote
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### Cutoff rule-mechanism question

I was checking on this paper where they define some rule-mechanism that is called cutoff rule-mechanism. I do not really understand why is this useful and how is this defined. Any help would be ...
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