Questions tagged [microeconomics]

Microeconomics is a branch of economics that studies the market behavior of individual actors (usually firms and consumers) and the aggregation of their actions in different institutional frameworks (usually the market).

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K in the Cobb Douglas function

I'm using the Cobb Douglas production function for a Mathematics investigation into how optimisation works in Economics. The assumption is that the firm require's only one type of capital, that is, a ...
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Some basic questions on infromation asymmetry

How does asymmetric information and bid-ask spread are connected? For instance, economic theory tells us that, the more the problem of information asymmetry, the higher the spread is. What is the ...
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locally nonsatiated preferences

what does this symbol mean in the discuss of locally nonsatiated preferences: $\varepsilon > 0$ and $||y-x||<\varepsilon$.
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What does “r” represent in the total cost function?

I know that the total cost function of a firm in the short run is: TC = wL + rK, where rK is essentially a constant. I understand the variables w, L and K, but I still don't get what r is. I mean, ...
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How to compute Walrasian equilibrium in the case of logarithmic utility?

If the utility is $U = \ln x + 2 \ln y$, how do you compute Walrasian equilibrium via usual formula for demand $x=a(x p_x + y p_y)/p_x(a+b)$ ? What is $a$ and $b$? In case of Cobb-Douglas function ...
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In a production function, the technology can vary across the firms and times. But the “power” must be same for the same industry?

Let $F_t=A_tK_t^\alpha L_t^{1-\alpha}$ be the production function with two parameters. In regression, we know the firm level $F_t$, $K_t$, and $L_t$. We want to estimate $A_t$ and $\alpha$. I've ...
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17 views

In the Cournot Duopoly Model,why is the Equilibrium achieved at 1/3 Rd of the Market Share?

I've been reading it for a while,while I do get the action reaction movements,I can't understand as to how the 1/3rd value was reached. Can anyone intuitively or mathematically explain as to how it's ...
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47 views

Market impact function

I have the following Dynamical system for market impact function $$p_{t+1}-p_t=a(d_t-s_t)$$ $$s_{t+1}-s_t=bp_ts_t-cs_t$$ $$d_t=y-rp_t$$ where $s_t$ is quantity supplied, $d_t$ is quantity demanded, ...
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NPV but adding last year net value?

I have found the following NPV (Net Present Value) formula: CF = unlevered cashflow i = interest rate (WACC) $$NPV = -I_0 + \frac {CF_{2019}}{(1+i)} + \frac {CF_{2020}}{(1+i)^{2}} +\frac {CF_{2021}}...
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Why does marginal cost slope upwards after the minimum point?

My textbook writes this on marginal cost: "The law of diminishing returns refers to the idea that as more of a factor (input) is used, with at least one fixed factor, there is some point at which the ...
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1answer
24 views

Is there some definition about risk sharing?

I was searching for a definition of risk sharing and I have found the following: $\underline{Definition:}$ Risk Sharing — also known as "risk distribution," risk sharing means that the premiums and ...
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which is an example of demand curve that is always inelastic/elastic?

Which class of functions have the property of being always elastic?and instead always inelastic?
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Does utility in economics also refer to producer's surplus ? How to balance the consumer surplus and producer surplus?

I am confused about the use of utility in economics and how it relates to allocative efficiency. At 4:35 and 5:07 in this video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9a3wXj1o91k) he talks about how at the ...
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1answer
49 views

Example which violates weak pareto and non dictatorship

Can you give an example of a social choice rule and a social welfare function that violates the conditions of Weak Pareto criterian and non dictatorship simultaneously?
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Study guide (and…) for “Intermediate Microeconomics with Calculus” by Varian

I have been googling study guides, solution manuals and other helpful material made by professors. But I have not found anything useful. Q: Do you guys know anything that will make the book easier ...
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Why does average variable cost = marginal cost for this function?

I was hoping someone could explain the following. Suppose the short-run total cost function is TC = 50 + 12Q. Which of the following statements is true at all levels of production? The correct answer ...
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34 views

Empirically checking efficiency and equity

I am aware that because of externalities or public goods (or for other reasons) there can be no allocative efficiency on the market. I am also aware that policy makers' subjective judgement of the ...
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1answer
107 views

A question about MWG Exercise 3.D.4

I'm doing exercises of Chapter3 of MWG, there's a problem that I don't understand (I didn't figure out the solution manual either...). It is about exercise 3.D.4, the full statement of the exercise ...
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109 views

How to prove that profit function is convex in price (with smaller price)?

According to this site, if output price increases from $p*$ to $p'$ and factor prices remain constant, then a new production bundle chosen must yield at least the same amount of profits as the old ...
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1answer
64 views

How to prove that a concave production imply that the input requirement sets are convex?

According to page 7 of this slide, "A convex production set Y implies that the associated input requirement set V(y) is convex". How can one go about proving it?
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1answer
55 views

Relationship between expected utility and independence axiom

Jonathan Levin in "Choice under Uncertainty" wrote in Theorem 1 " A complete and transitive preference relation on a set of lotteries P satisfies continuity and independence if and only if it admits ...
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1answer
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How to find change in the optimal choice with a utility function in general form?

Suppose the utility function is represented as $U(x_1,x_2;I)$, where $I$ is the level of information the consumer possesses. How to find the change in the optimal choice of $x_1$ as price of $x_1$ ...
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Why might a monotone increasing but nonlinear transformation of a utility function not represent the same preferences?

According to a textbook, a monotone increasing but nonlinear transformation of a utility function might not represent the same preferences. Why is it so? An example of such preference would be ...
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1answer
58 views

Why is a monotone increasing but nonlinear transformation of a utility function not represent the same preferences if the preference is complete?

According to a textbook, in the context of uncertainty (e.g. in lottery), if the preference is complete, a monotone increasing but nonlinear transformation of a utility function would not represent ...
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elasticity of income if price changes by 10 percent

Arista always spends 10 % of her income on whatzits. Assume that her income increases by some percentage while the price of whatzits remains constant (and that all whatzits cost the same). What is ...
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1answer
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Log Utiliy Function Trick

I am watching Lecture 3 of Yale's Financial Theory Lecture (by John). At about minute 50 he explains something along this line (with reference to log utility functions). MUx/Px=MUy/Py And ...
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1answer
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Study whether $\succsim$ represented by $u(x)=\lfloor x \rfloor$ is continuous [closed]

Using the following definition of continuity: $\succsim$ is continuous if for any bundles $x,y,z$ such that x$\succ$y$\succ$z, there exists $\alpha \in (0,1)$ such that $\alpha x + (1-\alpha)z \sim y$....
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Why is Engel curve a straight ray through the origin if $D_wx$ = x(p, 1)$?

I see in the textbook that the Engel curve will be straight if $D_wx(p,w) = x(p,1)$ but it's not immediately clear to me why this is the case. Could someone kindly explain to me?
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1answer
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Two firms competing ala Cournot

So I´m a bit stuck on this one. There are two firms in the country that sell cars. Both sell Toyotas and they buy their cars directly from the manufacturer, which is Toyota. We can assume that ...
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2answers
85 views

Can i check monotonicity with the marginal utility?

For example I have a Cobb-Douglas utility function $U(x,y)$ and I want to check the monotonicity property. Can I use the marginal utility functions to see that they are always positive to conclude ...
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1answer
53 views

Most profitable conversion of stock into money

When Forbes-lists of top billionaires are published we are usually aghast of their riches and statements such as "the 8 richest people own as much as the poorer half" are disseminated. I was ...
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What is the difference between Common Goods and Common Pool Resources?

All this time I was thinking that common-pool resources are common goods, until I read this excerpt from a book.
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32 views

Effect of a change in quality on price elasticity of demand

I am interested to know how one would expect a change in the quality of a product to affect its price elasticity of demand. Two example will illustrate my confusion: Example 1 Suppose a producer is ...
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1answer
38 views

Can a monopoly supply negative units to one of its two markets?

A question I have seen in my microeconomics textbook is as follows: Consider a monopoly supply to both a domestic and foreign market, where the market demands are: Yd(pd) = 20 - 2pd, hence pd(yd) = ...
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1answer
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First Order Stochastic Domination and lottery preferences

Let $L$,$L'$ be two lotteries over the real numbers. Let $u$ be an increasing Bernoulli utility function. Let $F_L$, $F_{L'}$ be the CDFs of the two lotteries. We wish to show that $$L \succ_{FOSD} L'...
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1answer
184 views

Stackelberg Oligopoly 3 firms [closed]

Imagine that there are 3 firms in a monopolistic market, F1, F2 and F3. Firms 1 and 2 are incumbent firms and act simultaneously whereas Firm 3 observes the actions of both firms before deciding ...
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1answer
40 views

Production function involving profit maximisation

​Hi, I don't get how the answer of d is deduced in this question because I don't think I made any mistakes in my calculation and have also used all the information given. After knowing L is 800, I ...
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1answer
146 views

Numerical Question on a subsidized monopoly

Suppose a government agency has a monopoly in the provision of internet connections. The marginal cost of providing internet connections is $ \frac12$, whereas the inverse demand function is given by: ...
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1answer
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Marginal Cost Calculation issue

I calculated the Marginal cost for the below question. But it seems the results are wrong After coming up with an innovative idea for a new product, you paid 4000 to an industrial designer to draw ...
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1answer
135 views

Utility Possibility Frontier with two consumers and 3 commodities

I am trying to solve the following problem: Consider a pure exchange economy with three commodities and two households with individual endowments: $$e_1=(1,2,3), e_2=(3,2,1),$$ respectively, and ...
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1answer
3k views

Deriving demand function from utility function

How do I derive the demand function from $$U=y + 2\sqrt{x}$$ Currently I have $MRS = \frac{1}{\sqrt{x}} = \frac{P_x}{P_y}$, so, $P_y = P_x\sqrt{x}$ Using the budget line: $$I = xP_x + yP_y \implies ...
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1answer
555 views

Profit maximizing, Quantity and Price with Dominant Firm and Competitive Fringe

A dominant firm operates in various markets. In one of these markets, it is a monopolist and produces with the following cost function: C(q1) = 5q1. The market demand is P = 1005 - Q. (a) Find the ...
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1answer
302 views

Question about Locally non-satiated preferences

If a consumer has locally non-satiated preferences, which of these 2 bundles is preferred and why? Bundle A: (1,3) Bundle B: (4,2) This is what I've reasoned from my very limited understanding of ...
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132 views

How Does Production Possibility Curve Shift (Partially)?

Textbook: "Suppose that a new pizza assembly line improves the pizza production process and that the development of the new assembly line does not require the use of more of society's resources. ...
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1answer
201 views

If a weak preference relation is complete and transitive, why is the strict preference relation negatively transitive?

My textbook says that "if a weak preference relation is complete and transitive, the strict preference relation MUST be asymmetric and negatively transitive". Now, I think I understand why it must be ...
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1answer
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Why do we have to normalize the income of consumers when working with an Edgeworth Box in a simple trade model with Pareto optima?

I was studying microeconomics and I confess I am not the brightest person for maths and sorry if this is very dumb but I get that we CAN normalize the income and I get where it comes from and how it ...
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1answer
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What does the sun product of price times quantity divided by average price

I have a very simple question, what is the meaning, if any, of this? I.e. Economically what does the following calculation mean? $$ \left(\frac{(Q1\cdot P1)+(Q2\cdot P2)+(Q3\cdot P3)}{Q1 + Q2 + Q3}\...
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1answer
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Microeconomics, deriving demand equations from utility unction

Utility function: U=X+XY and I=XPx+YPy Good Y is a composite good, so Py= 1 What would be the demand function for good X? I got Mux=1+y and Muy=x and since Mux/Px=Muy/Py 1+y/Px=x/py so that I=XPx+(...
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1answer
57 views

Should Company B enter the market in the following cases

Say Company A has a monopoly producing product E, at a constant marginal cost of $3$ USD. Say the ideal number of units produced is $1$ unit which produces a profit of $2$ USD (=$P_{A}$). Next, ...
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1answer
21 views

What is value in the context of microeconomic analys for case of monopoly profit maximization

I'm trying to refresh my microeconomics knowledge. And I have some "blind spots" I just can't fix. Let's say we have a monopoly on the market. It's usual goal is to maximize it's profits. The point ...

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