Questions tagged [monetary-policy]

Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency. Further goals of a monetary policy are usually to contribute to economic growth and stability, to low unemployment, and to predictable exchange rates with other currencies.

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1answer
31 views

Effectiveness of fiscal policy through increased tax compliance

I am inclined to think that in a country like the USA where tax compliance is a more than respectable 83%, there is less sense in reducing tax rates in an effort to increase tax revenue through hoping ...
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Equation of exchange and inflation target

The inflation target is $2$% and the equation of exchange states $MV=PQ$. Is the idea that we want to have greater money supply growth then real growth in general?
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431 views

Why does an economic slowdown lead to deflation?

Usually economists say that in recession there is deflation, so increasing the money supply does not lead to a high level of inflation. According to the Quantity theory of money, the price level is ...
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my economic question is based on macroeconomics [closed]

Suppose that the economywide expected future marginal product of capital is MPKf = 20 – 0.02K, where K is the future capital stock. The depreciation rate of capital, d, is 20% per period. The current ...
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12 views

Relative importance of the federal funds market in the post-2009 US economy

In the pre-financial crisis US economy, depository institutions had almost no excess reserves. Hence, it would make sense for some banks to have shortages of reserves and some with excess of reserves. ...
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21 views

Pareto efficiency analysis of level of M1 growth from quantitative easing

BMO recently conducted an analysis on US monetary policy and noted that quantitative easing has had diminishing effects on M1 growth. Daniel Krieter wrote: QE has fed through to the real economy in a ...
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Negative neutral real interest rate

What is the intuition behind having a negative neutral real interest rate?
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How is using a reserve fund different from printing money?

It is a common knowledge and has been explained here on SE that the source of value is production and consumption rather than money, and that accumulating money is thus pointless. Yet, "rainy day ...
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2answers
58 views

Macroeconomics differences of 2008 financial crisis and 2020 economic crisis

How is 2020 financial crisis different from 2008 financial crisis? For example, why have stock market indices (e.g. S&P500, NASDAQ-100) recovered so quickly (about 3 months instead of longer than ...
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Which is safer in the long-term, diffuse debt or concentrated debt?

I want to deepen my understanding of risks as posed by debt burdens among actors of an economy. After some literature review, it seems the matter is nuanced; points can be made for both sides. I'll ...
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1answer
15 views

Why would China's FX reserves stay flat as the Fed ramps up its balance sheet?

As seen in the chart, China's FX reserves have remained flat lately despite the massive balance sheet expansion of the Fed. Though out of the temporal domain of this chart, if it were extended back to ...
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2answers
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Why does the Fed feel the need to reduce its balance sheet?

Why does the Fed feel the need to reduce its balance sheet? What is the problem with the Fed having a large balance sheet long term? What would happen if the value on the Fed's balance sheet ...
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How exactly does QE affect the value of the USD?

A lot of people on the Internet refer to quantitative easing (QE) as a form of "legal money printing" when it is actually not. As such, many of these folks would thus erroneously say that QE leads to ...
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Why doesn't QE cause the federal funds rate to continue decreasing?

Quantitative easing (QE) is essentially a large-scale form of open market operations, in which the Fed buys large amounts of treasury bills of all maturities (ranging from 1-month to 30-year) and ...
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What determined the “cost of borrowing money” or the interest rate in a gold-based economy

In the modern economy, the central bank decides the cost of borrowing money using interest rates along with other several tools and technic. But I was wondering, in a gold-based economy (not the gold ...
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Expected inflation in the real interest rate equation

Real interest rate = Nominal rate - Expected inflation In the above equation, in a quarterly data-set, which expected inflation shall be used? next quarter (q+1) or the same quarter of next year (q+4)...
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Micro foundations of the Phillips Curve

In a typical NKPC: $Inflation_t = \alpha_1 Inflation_{t-1} + (1-\alpha_1) \mathbb{E}_tInflation_{t+1} + \alpha_2 RealMarginalCost + \epsilon_t$ From a micro-foundations perspective, does the ...
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What's the role of money multiplier in the banking system?

On the internet , there are lots of people claming that the banking system has an immense power because it can multiply money obtained by deposits ( 'make money out of thin air' ) and then lend this ...
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Helicopter Money in the time of Covid-19

In this voxEU article by Jordi Galí, he says the following: In the current context, the central bank could credit the government's account (or governments, in the case of the ECB) for the amount of ...
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What does the Fed mean by “smoothening money market functioning”?

In many recent interviews, Fed Chairman Jerome Powell has repeatedly mentioned that ensuring the smooth functioning of money markets is a key goal of the Fed's recent monetary policy actions. I want ...
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Stabilizing Property of a Taylor Rule

Considering the New Keynesian Model we have the Phillips curve and dynamic IS curve in log-linearized form with price shock $u^{\pi}$ and demand shock $u^{IS}$ :$$\pi_t=\beta E_t\pi_{t+1}+\kappa(y_t-...
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In credit easing, how do central banks avoid allegations of unequal treatment?

In credit easing, central banks purchase private assets such as corporate bonds. How do central banks choose which corporate bonds to buy? If the central bank buys bonds of one company but not those ...
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How collateral easing measures complement PELTROs or TLTROs?

ECB introduced Collateral easing measures on 8th April to complement its already existing refinancing operations. Do banks have to keep some collateral with ECB while borrowing? This is when they are ...
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How does the Monetary base, Narrow money and Broad money affect inflation?

In a lot of countries (e.g. Hungary) the M0, M1, M2 and M3 all doubled, tripled or even quadrupled in the past 10 years. How does this directly affect inflation? Since just because M2 doubles, it ...
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How can the Fed realistically address the issue of frontrunning (in the context of its ETF purchases)

In the first two days in which the Fed's corporate bond program started buying ETFs, purchases totaled around USD305m. The size of the program is much larger, and it would seem very reasonable to ...
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What was the “free Coynage” referred to in Dudley North's (1691) Discourses Upon Trade?

Dudley North (1691): I call to witness the vast Sums that have been coyned in England, since the free Coynage was set up; What is become of it all? no body believes it to be in the Nation, and it ...
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What estimation method is best to conduct event study on non standard monetary policy?

I have collected bond yield data from 01/01/2008:31/12/2019 for several euro-zone countries. I would like to conduct an event study analysis of the main Non standard measures announced by central ...
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What is the purpose of monetary expansion during an economic lockdown?

Recently, most developed countries central banks substantially lowered their base interest rate. In Australia, this is now at their stated lower bound of 0.25%. We also have QE. This is all in an ...
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Why does an increasing demand for dollars lead to the depreciation of a currency?

I am self studying some slides of a course on monetary economics. The source of the slides is Pilbeam, chapter 11 on the mechanism of the Bretton Woods system. I don't understand the following ...
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Can a commercial bank lend money from transaction/checking account as it would from a deposit account?

Transaction/checking accounts are highly liquid - M1 Deposit accounts are less liquid - M2 Per fractional reserve system, banks lend deposited money as credit to clients provided they keep a reserve ...
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The government is issuing massive debt for coronavirus relief - why aren't interest rates rising?

As I understand it, the US Treasury Department issues bonds to pay for the government's coronavirus rescue spending. I might have thought that such a large input to the fixed income market on the ...
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The process of printed money reaching the government?

I saw a link that suggested that when the fed prints money, this money is actually lent to the government in the form of bonds, not given. This, despite the fact that the Fed is (loosely) associated ...
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What would happen if the U.S. “refinanced” its national debt?

Interest rates are at historical lows. I believe they went negative in parts of Europe recently. Since interest on the national debt is one of the biggest, if not the biggest, expense item of the U.S. ...
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Time series in monetary policy

I wanted to learn how time series analysis is used to study monetary policy/ money and banking data, such as how and which techniques are used to study which data, what kind of problems are studied ...
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The government does not need to gather capital via tax and Treasuries to spend? According to MMT

I have watched Warren Moslers interview. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W97s3zbFKvc&t=841s. At 7:26 he says that the Treasury does not issue securities for the purpose of financing spending (it ...
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Why does a loose Fed policy reduce the downward pressure on the currencies of emerging markets?

To start off, my background is not in economics but in Computer Science. I recently read in the Economist that a looser Fed policy removes downward pressure on the currencies of emerging markets. Is ...
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Imports/Exports in the equation of exchange

From the equation of exchange: $MV=PY$, where $M$ is the money aggregate, $Y$ is the real output, $P$ is the price level and $V$ is the velocity of money, we derive $\% \Delta M + \% \Delta V = ...
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Why was the price of gold lower when gold confiscation act was issued but raised afterwards?

I was reading up on the gold reserve act which made it illegal for US citizens to own gold with some minor exceptions. According to the gold confiscation act which was issued before the gold reserve ...
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Net exports term in aggregate expenditure [duplicate]

This might be a basic question, which I don't yet understand. The aggregate expenditure (i.e., in my understanding, the total amount of inflation factored (i.e. real) money spent in the economy by its ...
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Does Shadow Banking (i.e. non-Commercial Banking) produce transaction-useful money?

In shadow banking amongst primary dealers & large institutions...I understand repurchase agreements function similar to deposit accounts (Gorton, et al). Additionally, I understand how traditional ...
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Creation of Money - Hypothetical Situation II

Continuation off this line of questioning. If I issue an IOU, it would need to be fungible, transferrable, etc in order to be considered "money." Understood - My follow up questions are: Remaining ...
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What would happen in the IS-LM model if there is a simultaneous decrease in tax and interest rate?

Since there is a fiscal expansion with a decrease in tax i'm not sure what the interaction would be with a decrease in interest too, would money supply and output both increase? Thanks
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Applying Econometrics to Monetary Economics

I've been given a problem in which I am told that GDP is a function of the supply of money, prices and demand, $$Y = (M/P)^\delta$$ Taking logs, $$\log(Y) = \alpha + \beta \log(m - p) +u$$ ...
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Creation of Money - Hypothetical Situation

Imagine you sell me some consulting services. I don't have any cash, so I give you a $100 IOU instead. You now have a $100 Note Receivable on your Balance Sheet. ...
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Monetary policy: increasing interest rate

What happens to the quantity of treasury bonds when central bank sells short-term bonds? The overall question for the assignment is: Suppose that the central bank of a country decides to increase the ...
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What amount of Quantitative Easing will cause hyperinflation?

You all know that Quantitative Easing shifts the LM and AD curves right, so I haven't taken the time to redraw this picture. What's the maximum amount of Quantitative Easing that the Federal Reserve ...
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what would be an efficient investment when central banks have massive qe?

Recently the central bank said in a statement on its website. “Aggressive efforts must be taken across the public and private sectors to limit the losses to jobs and incomes and to promote a swift ...
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Allowing the reserve requirements drop to zero

On 15 March 2020, the Federal Reserves announced that it would cut its benchmark rate to near zero and that it would also reduce the reserve requirements ratio to zero percent. This is part of its ...
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Why can money be described as “government non-interest bearing debt”

Trying to get some intuition on this statement I came across while reading Miguel Didrauski's dissertation "Rational Choice and Patters of Growth in a Monetary Economy". My sense is that it has ...
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Negative real rates on yield curve

If you look at information on the Treasury website, you will notice that currently, the real interest rate on the entire yield curve is negative. If you check the nominal rates in the short term, you ...

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