Questions tagged [monetary-policy]

Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency. Further goals of a monetary policy are usually to contribute to economic growth and stability, to low unemployment, and to predictable exchange rates with other currencies.

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40 views

Why Keynesians prefer short run measures despite straight long-run Phillips curve?

I was studying about the Monetarists' and Keynesians' view of the Phillips curve and natural rate theory of Friedman. It seems intuitive to me as to why Friedman argues that using an expansionary ...
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Could low interest rates encourage savings?

We normally assume that a lower interest rate will induce less saving as the returns on saving are lower. However, if a central bank committed itself to a low or even negative interest rate for a long ...
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How is reserve money 'multiplied' by the banking system?

I'ma an econ newbie so please forgive my lack of understanding. I am confused as to how the money multiplier effect works. I get that the money multiplier effect doesn't actually hold true as banks ...
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Log deviation from steady state - understanding a journal paper

I hope a question like this is fair game on this website! I'm doing some research for my thesis, and have come across what seems to be a pretty simple model - two countries, A (representing the USA) ...
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Mankiw's version of the Cagan model - need help interpreting it

To keep the math as simple as possible, we posit a money demand function that is linear in the natural logarithms of all the variables. The money demand function is $$m_t - p_t = -\gamma(p_{t+1}-p_{t})...
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How would a global Robin Hood deed affect the economy? [closed]

In one fiction series about a dystopian world, a small group of wealthy criminals owned a large fraction of the world's cash, which was on their bank accounts in a single offshore bank. In the happy ...
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Why would a CBDC (Central Bank Digital Currency) be good for the economy?

I've read about CBDC, how it could be a cryptocurrency like digital payment system, that could replace fiat currencies. But what I don't get is what value would it give to the economy? Someone who ...
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Why is deflation a likely short-term of an increase in M2?

The year-on-year growth in M2 — a broad measure of US money supply — has rocketed this year due to the efforts of monetary and fiscal policymakers to reduce the economic damage caused by the pandemic. ...
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Why may printing trillions of dollars not lead to inflation?

By definition, inflation should be affected by the increase of the money supply. During the pandemic, there have been numerous huge monetary policies executed, e.g., quantitative easing (QE), ...
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41 views

Does inflation equal change in M1 or M2?

According to monetarism, inflation can be predicted precisely by the change in money supply and GDP growth. Does "money supply" here refer to M1 or M2, i.e. does it include debts created by ...
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Monetary policy rate and fiscal deficit

A colleague in work mentioned today that Chile is keeping a flat monetary policy rate given "there is a higher expected fiscal deficit". If there is an expected fiscal deficit (i.e., ...
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Policy ineffectiveness proposition

Suppose, the Aggregate supply is given by the Lucas Supply Curve - $y_t = ȳ + b(P_t - E_{t-1}P_t) + μ_t$ where $μ_t$ is stochastic supply shock (following standard normal error properties). Aggregate ...
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How can non-US banks issue USD loans?

I understand, commercial banks are entitled by the Central Bank to "create new money" when they issue a loan and correspondingly "destroy the money" when the loan is paid back (...
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Are quantitative easing and helicopter cash really different tactics? And how does QE relate to Modern Monetary Theory?

I've been trying to get a clear understanding of exactly what economists mean by Quantitative Easing (QE). It seems to me that different people mean different things by it. I find simplistic analogies ...
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1answer
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How buying bonds indirectly from the government prevents the central bank from financing government deficit?

From Krugman's macroeconomic textbook (highlighting is mine): "In an open-market operation the Federal Reserve buys or sells some of the exist- ing stock of U.S. Treasury bills, normally through ...
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Is QE the equivalent of printing money?

I heard somewhere that QE is not the same as printing money -- in fact as I know it, QE is the purchase of assets in exchange for more liquid and high-quality, better collaborated debt. In other words,...
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Equation of exchange and inflation target

The inflation target is $2$% and the equation of exchange states $MV=PQ$. Is the idea that we want to have greater money supply growth then real growth in general?
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Why does an economic slowdown lead to deflation?

Usually economists say that in recession there is deflation, so increasing the money supply does not lead to a high level of inflation. According to the Quantity theory of money, the price level is ...
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Relative importance of the federal funds market in the post-2009 US economy

In the pre-financial crisis US economy, depository institutions had almost no excess reserves. Hence, it would make sense for some banks to have shortages of reserves and some with excess of reserves. ...
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Pareto efficiency analysis of level of M1 growth from quantitative easing

BMO recently conducted an analysis on US monetary policy and noted that quantitative easing has had diminishing effects on M1 growth. Daniel Krieter wrote: QE has fed through to the real economy in a ...
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Negative neutral real interest rate

What is the intuition behind having a negative neutral real interest rate?
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How is using a reserve fund different from printing money?

It is a common knowledge and has been explained here on SE that the source of value is production and consumption rather than money, and that accumulating money is thus pointless. Yet, "rainy day ...
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Macroeconomics differences of 2008 financial crisis and 2020 economic crisis

How is 2020 financial crisis different from 2008 financial crisis? For example, why have stock market indices (e.g. S&P500, NASDAQ-100) recovered so quickly (about 3 months instead of longer than ...
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Which is safer in the long-term, diffuse debt or concentrated debt?

I want to deepen my understanding of risks as posed by debt burdens among actors of an economy. After some literature review, it seems the matter is nuanced; points can be made for both sides. I'll ...
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Why would China's FX reserves stay flat as the Fed ramps up its balance sheet?

As seen in the chart, China's FX reserves have remained flat lately despite the massive balance sheet expansion of the Fed. Though out of the temporal domain of this chart, if it were extended back to ...
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Why does the Fed feel the need to reduce its balance sheet? [closed]

Why does the Fed feel the need to reduce its balance sheet? What is the problem with the Fed having a large balance sheet long term? What would happen if the value on the Fed's balance sheet ...
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How exactly does QE affect the value of the USD?

A lot of people on the Internet refer to quantitative easing (QE) as a form of "legal money printing" when it is actually not. As such, many of these folks would thus erroneously say that QE leads to ...
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Why doesn't QE cause the federal funds rate to continue decreasing?

Quantitative easing (QE) is essentially a large-scale form of open market operations, in which the Fed buys large amounts of treasury bills of all maturities (ranging from 1-month to 30-year) and ...
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What determined the “cost of borrowing money” or the interest rate in a gold-based economy

In the modern economy, the central bank decides the cost of borrowing money using interest rates along with other several tools and technic. But I was wondering, in a gold-based economy (not the gold ...
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Expected inflation in the real interest rate equation

Real interest rate = Nominal rate - Expected inflation In the above equation, in a quarterly data-set, which expected inflation shall be used? next quarter (q+1) or the same quarter of next year (q+4)...
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Micro foundations of the Phillips Curve

In a typical NKPC: $Inflation_t = \alpha_1 Inflation_{t-1} + (1-\alpha_1) \mathbb{E}_tInflation_{t+1} + \alpha_2 RealMarginalCost + \epsilon_t$ From a micro-foundations perspective, does the ...
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What's the role of money multiplier in the banking system?

On the internet , there are lots of people claming that the banking system has an immense power because it can multiply money obtained by deposits ( 'make money out of thin air' ) and then lend this ...
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Helicopter Money in the time of Covid-19

In this voxEU article by Jordi Galí, he says the following: In the current context, the central bank could credit the government's account (or governments, in the case of the ECB) for the amount of ...
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What does the Fed mean by “smoothening money market functioning”?

In many recent interviews, Fed Chairman Jerome Powell has repeatedly mentioned that ensuring the smooth functioning of money markets is a key goal of the Fed's recent monetary policy actions. I want ...
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Stabilizing Property of a Taylor Rule

Considering the New Keynesian Model we have the Phillips curve and dynamic IS curve in log-linearized form with price shock $u^{\pi}$ and demand shock $u^{IS}$ :$$\pi_t=\beta E_t\pi_{t+1}+\kappa(y_t-...
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In credit easing, how do central banks avoid allegations of unequal treatment?

In credit easing, central banks purchase private assets such as corporate bonds. How do central banks choose which corporate bonds to buy? If the central bank buys bonds of one company but not those ...
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How collateral easing measures complement PELTROs or TLTROs?

ECB introduced Collateral easing measures on 8th April to complement its already existing refinancing operations. Do banks have to keep some collateral with ECB while borrowing? This is when they are ...
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How does the Monetary base, Narrow money and Broad money affect inflation?

In a lot of countries (e.g. Hungary) the M0, M1, M2 and M3 all doubled, tripled or even quadrupled in the past 10 years. How does this directly affect inflation? Since just because M2 doubles, it ...
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How can the Fed realistically address the issue of frontrunning (in the context of its ETF purchases)

In the first two days in which the Fed's corporate bond program started buying ETFs, purchases totaled around USD305m. The size of the program is much larger, and it would seem very reasonable to ...
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What was the “free Coynage” referred to in Dudley North's (1691) Discourses Upon Trade?

Dudley North (1691): I call to witness the vast Sums that have been coyned in England, since the free Coynage was set up; What is become of it all? no body believes it to be in the Nation, and it ...
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What estimation method is best to conduct event study on non standard monetary policy?

I have collected bond yield data from 01/01/2008:31/12/2019 for several euro-zone countries. I would like to conduct an event study analysis of the main Non standard measures announced by central ...
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What is the purpose of monetary expansion during an economic lockdown?

Recently, most developed countries central banks substantially lowered their base interest rate. In Australia, this is now at their stated lower bound of 0.25%. We also have QE. This is all in an ...
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Why does an increasing demand for dollars lead to the depreciation of a currency?

I am self studying some slides of a course on monetary economics. The source of the slides is Pilbeam, chapter 11 on the mechanism of the Bretton Woods system. I don't understand the following ...
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Can a commercial bank lend money from transaction/checking account as it would from a deposit account?

Transaction/checking accounts are highly liquid - M1 Deposit accounts are less liquid - M2 Per fractional reserve system, banks lend deposited money as credit to clients provided they keep a reserve ...
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The government is issuing massive debt for coronavirus relief - why aren't interest rates rising?

As I understand it, the US Treasury Department issues bonds to pay for the government's coronavirus rescue spending. I might have thought that such a large input to the fixed income market on the ...
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2answers
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The process of printed money reaching the government?

I saw a link that suggested that when the fed prints money, this money is actually lent to the government in the form of bonds, not given. This, despite the fact that the Fed is (loosely) associated ...
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What would happen if the U.S. “refinanced” its national debt?

Interest rates are at historical lows. I believe they went negative in parts of Europe recently. Since interest on the national debt is one of the biggest, if not the biggest, expense item of the U.S. ...
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Time series in monetary policy

I wanted to learn how time series analysis is used to study monetary policy/ money and banking data, such as how and which techniques are used to study which data, what kind of problems are studied ...
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The government does not need to gather capital via tax and Treasuries to spend? According to MMT

I have watched Warren Moslers interview. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W97s3zbFKvc&t=841s. At 7:26 he says that the Treasury does not issue securities for the purpose of financing spending (it ...
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Why does a loose Fed policy reduce the downward pressure on the currencies of emerging markets?

To start off, my background is not in economics but in Computer Science. I recently read in the Economist that a looser Fed policy removes downward pressure on the currencies of emerging markets. Is ...

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