Questions tagged [monetary-policy]

Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency. Further goals of a monetary policy are usually to contribute to economic growth and stability, to low unemployment, and to predictable exchange rates with other currencies.

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1answer
72 views

Monetary Transmission in New Keynesian - Euler Equation

I get that NK model basically consists of the three equations: Taylor rule, Dynamic IS curve and the NK Phillips curve. I want to know the effect of nominal interest rate reduction on the ...
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What's the role of money multiplier in the banking system?

On the internet , there are lots of people claming that the banking system has an immense power because it can multiply money obtained by deposits ( 'make money out of thin air' ) and then lend this ...
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Helicopter Money in the time of Covid-19

In this voxEU article by Jordi Galí, he says the following: In the current context, the central bank could credit the government's account (or governments, in the case of the ECB) for the amount of ...
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What's quantitative easing?

From what I understand after reading mainstream media, quantitative easing increases the supply of money in the economy without direct government spending (fiscal policy). It seems to have all the ...
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Stabilizing Property of a Taylor Rule

Considering the New Keynesian Model we have the Phillips curve and dynamic IS curve in log-linearized form with price shock $u^{\pi}$ and demand shock $u^{IS}$ :$$\pi_t=\beta E_t\pi_{t+1}+\kappa(y_t-...
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In credit easing, how do central banks avoid allegations of unequal treatment?

In credit easing, central banks purchase private assets such as corporate bonds. How do central banks choose which corporate bonds to buy? If the central bank buys bonds of one company but not those ...
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1answer
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Can a commercial bank lend money from transaction/checking account as it would from a deposit account?

Transaction/checking accounts are highly liquid - M1 Deposit accounts are less liquid - M2 Per fractional reserve system, banks lend deposited money as credit to clients provided they keep a reserve ...
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How collateral easing measures complement PELTROs or TLTROs?

ECB introduced Collateral easing measures on 8th April to complement its already existing refinancing operations. Do banks have to keep some collateral with ECB while borrowing? This is when they are ...
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How does the Monetary base, Narrow money and Broad money affect inflation?

In a lot of countries (e.g. Hungary) the M0, M1, M2 and M3 all doubled, tripled or even quadrupled in the past 10 years. How does this directly affect inflation? Since just because M2 doubles, it ...
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How can the Fed realistically address the issue of frontrunning (in the context of its ETF purchases)

In the first two days in which the Fed's corporate bond program started buying ETFs, purchases totaled around USD305m. The size of the program is much larger, and it would seem very reasonable to ...
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What was the “free Coynage” referred to in Dudley North's (1691) Discourses Upon Trade?

Dudley North (1691): I call to witness the vast Sums that have been coyned in England, since the free Coynage was set up; What is become of it all? no body believes it to be in the Nation, and it ...
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Why doesn't the ECB implement the same fiscal and monetary policy that the FED used to save the US economy?

If the Fed managed to save the US economy with their liberal expansionary policy, why doesn't the ECB follow suit if it is much more efficient in reducing unemployment etc? Also, why did ...
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Who regulates the balancing of the books for commercial banks? How? Is it public information?

I've just read Money Creation in the Modern Economy, an article published by the Bank of England. This article brings about a lot of questions in my mind. This article talks about money being created ...
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1answer
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How can austerity and quantitative easing happen simultaneously?

In 2010 the UK government simultaneously started an austerity program which cut public spending, taking money out of the economy, while enacting a quantitative easing program which injected hundreds ...
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What estimation method is best to conduct event study on non standard monetary policy?

I have collected bond yield data from 01/01/2008:31/12/2019 for several euro-zone countries. I would like to conduct an event study analysis of the main Non standard measures announced by central ...
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What is the purpose of monetary expansion during an economic lockdown?

Recently, most developed countries central banks substantially lowered their base interest rate. In Australia, this is now at their stated lower bound of 0.25%. We also have QE. This is all in an ...
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Australian Dollar Devaluation

I am a layman in economics. I am curious about the current devaluation of Australian Dollar in comparison with the US Dollar. Could someone please explain, in simplest words possible: What causes ...
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Why does an increasing demand for dollars lead to the depreciation of a currency?

I am self studying some slides of a course on monetary economics. The source of the slides is Pilbeam, chapter 11 on the mechanism of the Bretton Woods system. I don't understand the following ...
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The government is issuing massive debt for coronavirus relief - why aren't interest rates rising?

As I understand it, the US Treasury Department issues bonds to pay for the government's coronavirus rescue spending. I might have thought that such a large input to the fixed income market on the ...
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1answer
47 views

What would happen if the U.S. “refinanced” its national debt?

Interest rates are at historical lows. I believe they went negative in parts of Europe recently. Since interest on the national debt is one of the biggest, if not the biggest, expense item of the U.S. ...
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The process of printed money reaching the government?

I saw a link that suggested that when the fed prints money, this money is actually lent to the government in the form of bonds, not given. This, despite the fact that the Fed is (loosely) associated ...
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Time series in monetary policy

I wanted to learn how time series analysis is used to study monetary policy/ money and banking data, such as how and which techniques are used to study which data, what kind of problems are studied ...
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1answer
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The government does not need to gather capital via tax and Treasuries to spend? According to MMT

I have watched Warren Moslers interview. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W97s3zbFKvc&t=841s. At 7:26 he says that the Treasury does not issue securities for the purpose of financing spending (it ...
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Why does a loose Fed policy reduce the downward pressure on the currencies of emerging markets?

To start off, my background is not in economics but in Computer Science. I recently read in the Economist that a looser Fed policy removes downward pressure on the currencies of emerging markets. Is ...
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1answer
108 views

Question on Open Market Operations

I have a very basic question on the somewhat cryptic Open Market Operations. So, from what I understand, say the Fed wants to reduce interest rates (increase monetary base). It will firs buy a bond by ...
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Does Shadow Banking (i.e. non-Commercial Banking) produce transaction-useful money?

In shadow banking amongst primary dealers & large institutions...I understand repurchase agreements function similar to deposit accounts (Gorton, et al). Additionally, I understand how traditional ...
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Net exports term in aggregate expenditure [duplicate]

This might be a basic question, which I don't yet understand. The aggregate expenditure (i.e., in my understanding, the total amount of inflation factored (i.e. real) money spent in the economy by its ...
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What amount of Quantitative Easing will cause hyperinflation?

You all know that Quantitative Easing shifts the LM and AD curves right, so I haven't taken the time to redraw this picture. What's the maximum amount of Quantitative Easing that the Federal Reserve ...
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Creation of Money - Hypothetical Situation

Imagine you sell me some consulting services. I don't have any cash, so I give you a $100 IOU instead. You now have a $100 Note Receivable on your Balance Sheet. ...
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1answer
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Creation of Money - Hypothetical Situation II

Continuation off this line of questioning. If I issue an IOU, it would need to be fungible, transferrable, etc in order to be considered "money." Understood - My follow up questions are: Remaining ...
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What would happen in the IS-LM model if there is a simultaneous decrease in tax and interest rate?

Since there is a fiscal expansion with a decrease in tax i'm not sure what the interaction would be with a decrease in interest too, would money supply and output both increase? Thanks
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Applying Econometrics to Monetary Economics

I've been given a problem in which I am told that GDP is a function of the supply of money, prices and demand, $$Y = (M/P)^\delta$$ Taking logs, $$\log(Y) = \alpha + \beta \log(m - p) +u$$ ...
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what would be an efficient investment when central banks have massive qe?

Recently the central bank said in a statement on its website. “Aggressive efforts must be taken across the public and private sectors to limit the losses to jobs and incomes and to promote a swift ...
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4answers
15k views

Does an increase in the money supply increase or decrease interest rates?

What I understand is that an increase in the money supply brings about a fall in interest rate as there is more money available, the price of money will be cheaper. But some theory such as liquidity ...
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2answers
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Allowing the reserve requirements drop to zero

On 15 March 2020, the Federal Reserves announced that it would cut its benchmark rate to near zero and that it would also reduce the reserve requirements ratio to zero percent. This is part of its ...
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1answer
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Why can money be described as “government non-interest bearing debt”

Trying to get some intuition on this statement I came across while reading Miguel Didrauski's dissertation "Rational Choice and Patters of Growth in a Monetary Economy". My sense is that it has ...
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1answer
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Negative real rates on yield curve

If you look at information on the Treasury website, you will notice that currently, the real interest rate on the entire yield curve is negative. If you check the nominal rates in the short term, you ...
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2answers
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Can central bank interest rate hikes lead to a price gain in equities?

I ran an empirical analysis on recent interest rate changes of European central banks on Swiss equity prices and found statistically significant results. A 1 percentage point increase in interest ...
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1answer
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Are Open Market Operations a Gift to the .1%?

My Background I was an Economics major a long time ago and I don't work in a related field. I have this question that's been nagging me. I hope somebody can answer the questions at the bottom. ...
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2answers
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What would be the likely economic consequences of the “trillion dollar coin” idea to eliminate all government debt?

Taken from this question over at politics.se, consider this article by Business Insider which describes a scenario in which the treasury mints a trillion dollar coin to pay off all the debts of the U....
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Liquidity Trap Question? Return to equilibrium

As far as I inderstand a liquidity trap occurs when increasing the money supply is not able to stimulate the economy because people prefer hoarding the cash rather then investing in debt securities ...
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Why can't countries print another country's currency?

Counterfeiting money is clearly a difficult thing for individuals, but surely a country should have no problems counterfeiting another country's currency. Why don't countries do it? For example, for ...
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Why is the U.S. economy more responsive to monetary stimulus than the euro zone, Japan, China and other major trading partners?

I've read in a Reuters article that The U.S. economy tends to be more responsive to monetary stimulus than the euro zone, Japan, China and other major trading partners. Is this unambiguously true ...
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Implications of abolishing Fractional Reserve Banking on mortgages and interest rates

Suppose for a moment that someone with legislative power decides to abolish Fractional Reserve Banking and passes a law that forces banks to only lend the money they own, that is M0. What would be the ...
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3answers
108 views

What limits central banks from setting highly negative interest rates?

What limits central banks from setting highly negative interest rates if needed? Is it only that people can take out a lot of cash and put it in a vault, or are there other reasons? If we had removed ...
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Brainard on ELB Policy

In this speech, FRB Governer Lael Brainard suggested the following approach to monetary policy at the Effective Lower Bound: .....I have been interested in exploring approaches that expand the ...
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2answers
72 views

What does it mean to “kickstart the economy”?

This answer claims that: the central banks have been lowering and lowering [interest] rates, desperate to kickstart the economy, but it's not been working What does "kickstart the economy" mean ...
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Cash and negative interest rates

Recently, I read an IMF blog on how the negative interest rate policy can be implemented feasibly here. I don't really understand what they are saying in this paragraph: When cash is available, ...
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bank lending channel and bank capital channel: mechanism step by step

In any definition of these concepts, I miss the first step: how exactly does expansionary or contractionary (rate changes, req. reserve changes, ... ) monetary policy affect bank deposits and bank ...
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What justifies the authority of a bank to create money when they make loans?

This is somewhat of a political or philosophical question. As explained by the Bank of England and elsewhere, the majority of broad money is created by credit to banks' accounts when they make loans. ...

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