Questions tagged [monetary-policy]

Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency. Further goals of a monetary policy are usually to contribute to economic growth and stability, to low unemployment, and to predictable exchange rates with other currencies.

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Is increasing the money supply possible with a gold standard? How about controlling interest rates?

I understand that under a fiat currency, the government can buy securities on the open market to increase the money supply, and decrease interest rates. This monetary policy is possible to help ...
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Gold and loss of faith in central banking

In this article here, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/investing/gold/gold-resurgence-whos-buying-gold-and-why/ , it states that "gold tends to do....best when markets lose faith in central banking". I ...
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Clarification on the impact of a change in the Bank Rate (UK)

I'm currently revising for my AS economics exam and I am going over Monetary Policy. In a handout, I've read the following phrases which I am a little confused about... "A cut in the base rate, ...
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Monetary Policy - How can increasing interest rates cause higher inflation in the short term?

My understanding of the interest rates part of monetary policy is the follows: Borrower's point of view: An increase in interest rates, increases the cost of borrowing, which may reduce disposable ...
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Why do central banks currently favor cheap money policies?

Currently, central banks around the world are setting very low interest rates. According to Taylor rules, which most central banks can be shown to roughly follow, this implies that they believe that ...
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Monetary Transmission in New Keynesian - Euler Equation

I get that NK model basically consists of the three equations: Taylor rule, Dynamic IS curve and the NK Phillips curve. I want to know the effect of nominal interest rate reduction on the ...
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Why do Latin American countries fare among the worst at managing inflation

Does it have to do with cultural factors? Ex: they were colonies of Spain and Portugal who themselves are not that great at managing their economies relative to other western European countries.
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What are taxes for since law forbids printing of money?

This question bothers me for a long time: why government keeps up with the taxes instead of with printing money? This would decrease its operating costs, simplify law and generally raise comfort of ...
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Why currency purchasing power is linked to confidence in central banks

From the New Statesman, http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/economy/2016/02/coming-storm, "Ever since the collapse of the Bretton Woods system of pegged exchange rates in 1971, the sole guarantee ...
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Understanding the current monetary context in terms of the classics?

I find the current monetary context unprecedented and baffling. On one hand there is no significant inflation, or even deflation. This is occurring against a backdrop of continued dollarization; many ...
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Gali - Monetary Policy - Solutions?

I am working through exercises in Gali but some of them are rather difficult. I am trying to find a solutions manual to use as an aide for exercises that completely stump me and to confirm solutions ...
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Why should I get a bond with negative interest instead of having a bank deposit account either zero interest or positive interest

I don't get why central banks apply negative interest rates. They say that buy our bond and at the maturity, it will worth less than today. What is the policy outcome of such decision? Why an investor ...
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Is Iranian rial going to get boosted?

I was reading about the Iran's economy and Iranian rial. I have read the news regarding the lift of sanctions from Ira, which had allowed the purchase of Iranian rial in America. I was having query ...
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Negative interest rates - Monetary Policy

(This is 1st part of series of questions under "Negative interest rates") I've happen to stumble on two articles, with some weeks, that the central bank(CB) of switzerland, due to Russia ruble crisis,...
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Wouldn't abolition of cash give rise to a substitute currency?

Some countries (e.g. Sweden and Denmark) plan to abolish physical cash in the future and restrict the use of cash to electronical deposits. One of the reasons for this is to prevent hoarding / boost ...
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Monetary Base vs. Stock price

link: https://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/graph/?g=3big I have watched this video where he explain this chart. Basically he shows high correlation between Monetary Base and the Stock Market. But I ...
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Why lower the deposit rate if it is already negative?

The European Central Bank (ECB) has been lowering the interest rate on its deposit facility, first to -0.1% in June 2014, then to -0.2% in September and eventually to -0.3% in December 2015. But what ...
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What is “inter-temporal smoothing”?

In a recent article about the OECD latest report it reads as follows: Mr White said QE and easy money policies by the US Federal Reserve and its peers have had the effect of bringing spending ...
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Why doesn't the ECB implement the same fiscal and monetary policy that the FED used to save the US economy?

If the Fed managed to save the US economy with their liberal expansionary policy, why doesn't the ECB follow suit if it is much more efficient in reducing unemployment etc? Also, why did ...
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What kind of policy is minimum wage?

Does it fall under fiscal, monetary, or supply-side, or perhaps some other group? Also (seeing as minimum wage is a form of price control policy), where does the broader "price control policy" fall?
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When nominal interest rates reach zero bound,why inflation will turn to have a positive relation with output gap? [closed]

From the graph, inflation has a negative relation with output gap when interest rates are higher than zero but turn to a positive relation when reach zero. I cannot understand why the relationship ...
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Flat AD curve - policy effects

Suppose the AD curve is relatively flat because the Fed wants a stable price level. Which policy (monetary or fiscal) is ineffective?
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How does burning a huge amount of cash money affect the monetary supply? [duplicate]

I am not an economist by default. In other words, I am a newbie here. Assume there is an extremely rich man who withdraws an extremely huge amount of cash money. He then burns all of it. How does ...
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Are things any better in what society considers “third world countries” as they were years ago? If things are better, how did they improve and why?

For years I've seen non-stop commercials of countries in the continent of Africa showing kids who live in sewage huts, parents are dead, war gangs and criminals rule their lives. Like in Captain ...
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Increase in the number of jobs in an economy: Central Bank raises interest rates?

For example since the August job report came out, which showed hundreds of thousands ob jobs created. This will inevitable lead to the Fed to increase interest rates, but what is the motive behind ...
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Macroeconomics - Fiscal/Monetary Policy and the Price level

I was studying for my macroeconomics test by solving test banks and I came upon this question which has been really bugging me. To decrease the price level A.the Fed could buy bonds and the ...
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Why does a stronger currency have a tightening effect on economic conditions?

http://www.economist.com/blogs/buttonwood/2015/12/central-bank-predictability Ever since 1987, banks have been willing to cut rates when markets have wobbled. Driving down bond yields has been an ...
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Yuan to be a reserve currency, IMF is considering [closed]

If yuan becomes a reserve currency, can we expect the petrodollars to be swapped with petroyuans given china's ever increasing mammoth demand for energy resources?
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By what steps and contracts does new money enter the economic system?

Like many noneconomists who read about economic history and finance, I always remain somewhat baffled by the opaque generation of currency under the federal reserve system. My understanding is that ...
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Should central bank raise interest rates during a condition of liquidity trap?

I was studying about liquidity traps and understood it fairly well that according to widespread beliefs the monetary policy turns out to be ineffective as nominal interest rates are close to zero and ...
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Why didn't the money printing by the US Federal Reserve since 2008 lead to inflation?

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/comment/liamhalligan/8484530/Americas-reckless-money-printing-could-put-the-world-back-into-crisis.html America's reckless money-printing could put the world back ...
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Measure of expected inflation

How is expected inflation measured for policy purposes? Is it based on some economic model or some survey?
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Fed hikes rates - what will happen in Europe?

There's been a lot of talk about the Fed hiking rates soon, and this should be inevitable within the next few months. In the longer term (let's talk about the next 2-5 years), the rates are probably ...
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Why do all countries recognize foreign wealth?

Recently I learned that by 2016 that 1% of the population will have 50% of the worlds wealth. That means that more than 50% of individuals actually has less than he would in a totally fair economy. ...
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Why does savings equal investment (scenario)?

Scenario 1: There's an economy of two people (Joe and Amanda). Joe buys a 500 dollar car from Amanda (which she made herself from raw materials in her back yard). Amanda takes the 500 dollars and ...
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Long run trade off between inflation and output

In "The incredible Volcker Disinflation" by Goodfriend and King (2005) we are presented with the NK Pricing equation $\pi_t = E_t\pi_{t+1} + h(y_t-y_t^*)$ the author then mentions that there is no "...
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Exporting inflation

One explanation I have read for the resistance of the dollar to inflation is that it is "exported" meaning that excess dollars go abroad and foreign use of the dollar increases, thus preventing the ...
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Can holding interest rates at zero (ZIRP) for a very long time cause the deflation it is trying to prevent?

The fisher equation is nominal interest rate = real interest rate + inflation rate. If nominal interest rate is kept to zero, and real interest rate remains ...
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Effect of a US Federal Reserve rate hike on the Dow Jones Industrial Average

There is speculation that the Federal Reserve of the United States will raise interest rates by 0.25% in the near future. What is the expected effect on the stock market if interest rates do rise by ...
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How does the IS/LM model respond to organic GDP growth when the money supply is held constant?

If GDP increases (due to tech change/good investment), interest rates would move up along the LM curve and down along the IS curve, so what happens to the equilibrium? Do we assume GDP cannot grow ...
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Using US foreign tax policy to offset a raise in interest rates

I am an amateur economist at best, more a person with an economic BS looking to explore data science (I will be using python). I have a theory that I want opinion on that will allow the Fed to raise ...
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How could monetary policy be affected if cash “gifts” to consumers were more frequently used?

A few years ago in the US, everyone who filed taxes received a check for $1000. If this method of inflation was logistically more feasible, how could this be used in monetary policy, and what ...
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Currency Peg or Currency Substitution/Dollarize?

Why would a sovereign state choose an exchange rate peg over the demonetization of the local currency, replaced by hard currency? In the case of the West and Central African CFA Francs, France has an ...
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EIB - losses on Greek bonds

The EIB is holding large quantities of Greek bonds. if Greece would default on these bonds, how would these (paper) losses be felt by individual tax payers in the other EU countries? Would this be ...
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Are bank reserves part of M1 or only part of M2, and why?

(1) Toyland earns $$100,000 revenue in cash this week. Toyland managers use this $100,000 to pay down a short-term loan from Bank One. Bank One keeps the cash in reserve. As a result of this ...
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Floating exchange rate and cost-push inflation?

I have a trouble understanding the following text from my textbook. I bolded the fragments that don't make sense to me. "Disadvantages of a floating exchange rate: A floating exchange rate regime may ...
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Is money lent by central banks to private banks counted in MB or M1?

If a bank borrow money from a central bank but keeps it as a reserve instead of lending it to someone else, is it counted in the monetary base (MB) or money supply measure M1, using US definitions ? ...
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How would banking in UK change if minimum required capital to open own bank would be £100k instead of €5m?

DIRECTIVE 2013/36/EU Article 12 Initial capital Without prejudice to other general conditions laid down in national law, the competent authorities shall refuse authorisation to ...
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Where did the Greek cash go?

Apparently (1, 2) Greece is running out of cash right now. I am wondering where the cash went. One option that I can image is people withdrawing funds and taking them out of the country but this ...
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How would banking in EU change if taxpayers withdrew their support for Deposit Guarantee Scheme?

Disclaimer The question pertains mostly to EU but I believe counterparts to Deposits Guarantee Scheme exist world-wide. Assumption Let’s suppose that support for liberal ideas and free market rises ...