Questions tagged [money-supply]

Use for questions primarily related to the stock of money, either narrow money (MB or M0), and broad money (M1, M2, etc). This can also be used in questions related to the creation of money by governments and central banks, including questions related to models with a money market like IS-LM, where the supply is of importance.

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26 views

Liquidity Trap Question? Return to equilibrium

As far as I inderstand a liquidity trap occurs when increasing the money supply is not able to stimulate the economy because people prefer hoarding the cash rather then investing in debt securities ...
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7k views

Why is money in circulation a liability of the central bank?

We know that the money today is fiat currency, that it is money because the government says it's so. So when new money is printed or loaned out to the commercial banks by buying treasury bonds, ...
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69 views

A hypothetical question on neutrality of money

Let's assume that we start with an economy producing two goods, A and B, with each priced $100. Each good is weighted using the same quantity, so CPI equals 100. Nominal wage is also 100 dollars. An ...
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1answer
14 views

Exogenous variables and money

What are the exogenous variables that drive demand for and supply of money? Are there variables in common between the two? I think I'm getting caught up with interest rates, as adjusted by the Feds vs ...
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68 views

What is the upper limit of circulating money on earth?

I've come up with this question while discussing the topic of customer-perceived value with coworker. Is there a theoretical upper limit to all circulating money in this world? To avoid inflation ...
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5answers
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Implications of abolishing Fractional Reserve Banking on mortgages and interest rates

Suppose for a moment that someone with legislative power decides to abolish Fractional Reserve Banking and passes a law that forces banks to only lend the money they own, that is M0. What would be the ...
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13 views

How would M2 and Velocity of M2 be affected if balance sheet expansion continues long-term?

Let’s assume that the Federal Reserve does NOT discontinue injecting liquidity into the Repo market but, instead, continues a long-term policy of continuous and regular liquidity injections. Let’s ...
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2answers
58 views

Change in money supply

Suppose a bank makes a loan of $1M to someone taking out a mortgage to buy a house by crediting that person's bank account with a deposit equal to the size of the mortgage. Suppose the required ...
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2answers
57 views

Quantity theory of money: microfoundations

The quantity theory of money states the price level is proportional to the amount of money in circulation. That is, if the quantity of money increases by some factor $k$, the price level will increase ...
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2answers
371 views

What is the effect of expansionary fiscal policy in case liquidity trap situation?

I've read that liquidity trap means interest rate is at its minimum and increase in real money stock will not lead to fall in interest rate because people will be demanding whatever the amount is ...
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1answer
109 views

Can the Fed raise the M1 money supply permanently w/o helicopter money?

I just read parts of an introductory economics book. I read about the monetary system in the U.S. and came up with the following question: Can the Fed raise the M1 money supply permanently without ...
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1answer
39 views

Does a negative interest decrease the money supply?

If there is less money, its value increases. There is less liquidity when there is less money. Does a negative interest decrease the money supply? Especially when people don't need money: they saved ...
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1answer
65 views

Velocity of M1 versus M2 money

According to Pablo Kurlat's textbook on Macroeconomics, the graph of Ch 13 compares the velocity of M1 and M2 over the years. I don't understand why M1 velocity exceeds M2 even though M2 includes more ...
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22 views

Any drawback from printing money to pay for national services such as the NHS? [duplicate]

Why can't we just print money to build national infrastructure services such as an additional hospital for the NHS? This would create growth, allowing more doctors and nurses to come through but more ...
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1answer
24 views

Initial creation of reserves

I am currently reading the book "Where does money come from?" which is co-authored by Richard Werner after I took the "Money and Banking"-class in coursera by Perry Mehrling. There are certain ...
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1answer
68 views

Can government just print a little of money to purchase some foreign resources?

We know that government shouldn't just print money, because it's gonna be bad. Bad what if to do it in a small scale, just a little, for example to hire some scientist (probably nothing gonna happen ...
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3answers
119 views

LM curve: How interest rate is changing without OMOs by the central bank?

The following is the gist from chapters - 3, 4 & 5 dealing with IS-LM model from Macroeconomics, Blanchard & Johnson, 6th edition. Equilibrium in the financial market implies an increase in ...
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1answer
544 views

Implications of declining money velocity

In the United States, the velocity of both the M1 and M2 money supplies has been declining for over a decade. The decline in the velocity of M1 could be explained by the shift away from cash to cards ...
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1answer
42 views

The Fed Lowered Interest Rates, Are they going to buy Bonds?

I originally asked this question on personal finance/money because I didn't know that this exchange site existed. link to same question at person finance/money. Someone on that site mentioned that it ...
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1answer
42 views

Why aren't open market operations a zero sum transaction?

I know that when the Federal Reserve buys Treasury bonds it increases the money supply, but I don't understand the process behind it. The model that I have given below (which is my best understanding ...
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2answers
48 views

How does the pie get larger?

I understand the concept of creation of wealth through trade, innovation, labor and capital. New value is being added to the economy. Let's imagine for a second that there are no central banks and the ...
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2answers
206 views

Why has M1 grown a lot faster than M3 after the financial crisis?

While the fed has printed a lot of money the last decade and the M1 money quantity growth rate has gone up significantly (red), the M3 growth rate (blue) is almost exactly the same as before the ...
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1answer
105 views

Why is the cash in circulation on the rise in rich countries?

The amount of cash in circulation is on the rise in rich countries (US, EU, etc; except the cashless economy, Sweden). In the digital era, isn't this phenomenon contradictional? For example, here's ...
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26 views

Which assets beat the injection of money and why?

Suppose a world in which every year $1.03 ^ Y$ liquidity is injected. Which assets could perform better than 3% per year? Growth forecasts for these?
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5k views

Did the robbers from Money Heist real steal noone's money?

Money Heist (original Spanish title: La Casa de papel) is a Spanish TV show about a bank heist. From Wikipedia (bolding mine), In Money Heist, a mysterious man, known as "The Professor", is ...
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51 views

Quantity theory of money

Suppose the velocity of circulation (V) is constant. Annual growth rate of real GDP is 5%. The money supply grows by 14% per year. Use the quantity theory of money to calculate the inflation rate. My ...
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1answer
64 views

How do people check or trust that central bank is not cheating? [closed]

How people can be sure that somebody, cooperating with central bank (or working in it), is not creating money in digital or paper form for themself, so that nobody else notices it?
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3answers
120 views

How important are capital requirements for controlling broad money supply?

Interestingly, the Bank of England (BoE) is one of the few central banks that does not have reserve requirements. Canada, the UK, New Zealand, Australia, Sweden and Hong Kong have no reserve ...
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4answers
4k views

Why is fractional reserve banking allowed?

I learned about banks' fractional reserves and that revolted me. How is that not considered to be fraud? The idea doesn't seem too sophisticated, on the contrary, it sounds very simple: the bank ...
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0answers
12 views

What is the effect on money multiplier of the following three cases?

Assuming ceterus paribas in each case: (i)The bank expands its operations in the field of financial derivatives. (ii) Increasing competition leads to a fall in the transaction costs incurred by ...
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8answers
5k views

What would be the effects of an expiration date on currency?

Let's say we introduce a monetary system where each piece of money is printed with an expiration date - a year, perhaps. I'm imagining something rather different from inflation (although I do not ...
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0answers
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Difference between IS curve viewed by Keynes and by Friedman

In my economics lectures, we are going through Keynes vs Friedman. As far as I got we have a downward sloping IS curve in the IS-LM model. We get this curve from the Keynesian cross when the rate of ...
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0answers
64 views

Effect of Import Tariff on Supply of Currency on Foreign Exchange Market

I'm struggling with this question below for my macroeconomics course. If Argentina were to impose a tariff on its imports, how will the supply of Argentina's currency and its exchange rate be ...
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2answers
537 views

What happens if money supply grows more slowly than inflation?

I'm thinking the case of Argentina. In 2016, prices raised about 40% but according to the central bank of Argentina, money supply grew only 30%. Is this going to have an effect in 2017? What could we ...
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65 views

Intuition behind Real Money Demand and Real Money Supply

Standard undergraduate textbooks begin with an exposition of the money market with the following equilibrium condititon: $$\frac{M^{s}}{P}=L\left(R,Y\right) $$ In the above, the LHS is what is ...
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42 views

The value of money in a model economy. Has this been addressed?

Consider the following question: "Given a simplified economy which produce and trade some products A,B,C etc... with N agents and a total money supply of M. What will be the price of A, B, C as ...
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135 views

Demand for real money balances worked out example

I was looking through some macroeconomic textbooks and came across a seemingly simple equation that derives the demand for real money balances, I also included the explanation for each part of the ...
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1answer
126 views

Would taxing money owned (as a share of purchasing power) be a better form of taxation?

Consider a nation whose money is entirely digital (like Bitcoin), but centralized (unlike Bitcoin). Furthermore, the total money supply is fixed, i.e. money cannot be created nor destroyed. To be ...
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1answer
38 views

Is it true that when the overall money supply decreases, that the demand for money decreases and the demand for bonds and securities both increase?

Is it true that when the overall money supply decreases, that the demand for money decreases and the demand for bonds and securities both increase? I understand that to increase the money supply, the ...
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0answers
29 views

What is the impact of money “sent” to another country?

I've been thinking about this a lot and I am not sure I have understood correctly. I was thinking about, for example, migrant workers who send a portion of their income back home, or wealthy ...
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111 views

Why are banks allowed to resell mortgages?

It just seems like a way to get around money creation limits imposed by liquidity requirements. For example if a bank creates new money by extending new morgages then securitizes them and resells them,...
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2answers
69 views

Why did it take so much QE by the ECB to raise the Eurozone inflation to 2%?

From 2015 to 2018 the ECB increased the money supply by around 20% (around 6% y/y), with a GDP increase rate under 1%. Yet the inflation rate remained under 2%. A back-of-the-envelope calculation ...
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1answer
104 views

Nominal vs real growth of monetary base

Can someone clarify the difference between nominal and real growth of monetary base? I believe it is the policy of some central banks to target for example 0% nominal growth in the monetary base. What ...
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0answers
29 views

How does the central bank fund open market operations?

This may seem like an extremely simple question, but I have been unable to find any satisfactory information on this. How, practically, does the central bank generate the funds to purchases ...
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4answers
175 views

Does Bad Money Drive Good Money Out Of Circulation

I have heard the saying, "Bad money drives good money out of circulation," (Gresham's Law) many times. I'm wondering if it's true, what it really means. What's good money? What's bad money? And if ...
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3answers
1k views

What is the effect of Quantitative Easing on the US budget deficit?

Is the deficit getting larger because of QE?
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4answers
957 views

The sequence of Money Supply - Interest Rate

Until now I've learned that the Fed controls the interest rates and that affects the money supply. For instance, The Fed increases Interest Rate ----> makes firms/households reluctant to borrow and ...
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2answers
790 views

interest rate and money supply

When the interest rate increases, I learned that money supply decreases because people put their currency back in banks in forms of assets and tend to save more, spend less. However, money supply ...
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1answer
119 views

Wealth Creation: Where does the money come from?

I'm trying to better understand wealth creation– let's use trade as an example. I've bought a cup for \$2 and sold it for \$10. We've "created some new wealth" there– but without a net increase in ...
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2answers
65 views

What does it mean to “print money”?

In my intro macroeconomics course, my professor tried to emphasize that the money supply changes ONLY by increasing or decreasing lending activity. However, I feel like he was trying to focus on ...