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Questions tagged [oligopoly]

Questions about markets where the number of sellers is finite and larger than one.

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Stackelberg model with 3 symmetric firms

Firm 1, the incumbent, sets quantity q1 first, then firm 2 enters the market and sets quantity q2, knowing q1. Lastly, firm 2 enters the market and sets quantity q3, knowing q1 and q2. Firms are ...
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Long Run Model of Oligopolies After Recession

I am currently investigating about the long run impact of the COVID 19 to the US airline industry. Is there any specific (long-run) model that I can use for oligopolies (for 4 main companies)? Because ...
HelloWorld's user avatar
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1 answer
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Underlying assumptions of Bertrand competition

Q1. Under the lists of assumptions for Bertrand model it is mentioned in last that the following are intuitively deducible when considering the law of demand of firms' competition in the market: If ...
hr08's user avatar
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For which number of firms in a Cournot oligopily a merger is profitable

Assume a Cournot oligopoly with N (equal to 2 or higher) symmetric firms. Firms face a demand function P=a-bQ and an average cost c. I need to find the number of firms N for which it will be ...
Ksenia's user avatar
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On Cournot question

In a duopoly market, the market demand function is $y(p) = 120-p$ where $y=y_1+y_2$ Total function of firm 1 is $C_1(y_1)=20y_1$ while the reaction function of firm 2 is $y_2= 60-0.5y_1$. Assume that ...
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How do the assumptions $p'+q_ip''<0$ and $p'-c''<0$ ensure the stability of the Nash equilibrium among private firms in basic mixed oligopoly model?

I have two quick question regarding basic oligopoly models: What is meant by we impose the assumptions to $p'+q_ip''<0$ and $p'-c''<0$ to ensure the stability of the Nash equilibrium among ...
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How to solve the Bertrand model when marginal costs are different and not constant?

Find the equilibrium in the Bertrand model with two firms, with total costs given by: $TC_1(q_1) = \alpha q_{1}^2$ $TC_2(q_2) = \beta q_{2}^2$ Inverse demand is given by $P = A - Q$, where $Q = q_1 + ...
Nicolas Torres's user avatar
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2 answers
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how does monopolisitic competition make profit in the long run in reality

guys, I have this doubt that if the fast food industry such as KFC, and Maccas are examples of monopolistic competition how are they still making a profit? Because as per the model in long run the ...
studenthere's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
96 views

Cournot Duopoly firms guaranteed to produce the same amount

If a market is given to be a Cuornot duopoly and Q = q1 + q2. What assumptions can you make about q1 and q2 being equal? Is it possible for q1 > q2 and thus for company 1 to have greater market ...
ford prefect's user avatar
3 votes
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Math behind the first mover advantage in Stackelberg model

Suppose the market demand is $P(Q) = a-bQ$ and the manufacturing cost of an item is $c_1q_1$ for firm $1$ and $c_2q_2$ for firm $2$. In the Cournot model, we maximize the profit functions and plug in ...
Rick_Morty's user avatar
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Why is the Cournot equilibrium price more than competitive price?

Why is the Cournot competition price more than the perfectly competitive price? My intuition tells me that since the quantity is less than what would've been the case in a perfect competition, so the ...
Rick_Morty's user avatar
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Doesn't it make sense in terms of economic security for tech companies to support unions?

It seems to me looking across (modern) history that the biggest threat to monopoly is government intervention. It certainly seems true in present times when you have many politicians on the left ...
Raydot's user avatar
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How useful are basic economics (elasticity / consumer & producer theory) in real life?

I am thinking how these concepts will be applied in the industries / at a job. For example I could see elasticity as useful in projecting the outcomes of supply ...
Neo's user avatar
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Realistic examples of quantity competition

In microeconomic models of oligopolies we consider price competition and quantity competition (think Cournot, Bertrand, Stackelberg). I can easily imagine price competition where a producer sets the ...
Richard Hardy's user avatar
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4 answers
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Why would a company sabotage its product's ability to be used for a particular purpose?

I saw in the news recently that NVIDIA has placed limits on the hash rate for mining Ethereum cryptocurrency. This is purportedly to get more GPUs into the hands of gamers instead of crypto miners. ...
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Profit maximization of an oligopolistic firm

I have some serious doubts between A and B. On one hand, given that each oligopolistic firm follows the same profit maximization rule as that of a monopolistic one, it's the basic rule of MR = MC, and ...
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Will there always be excess profit in the Cournot model equilibrium/monopoly

So I'm studying market structures for the end of term, and I'm a bit confused about excess profits. From what I can see, excess profits occur when the demand curve intersects the AC curve - the MR=MC ...
Evan's user avatar
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Sequential and simultaneous price competition

Frims 1 (leader) and 2 (follower) compete in price with product differentiation • Find the equilibrium price, quantity and profit when they choose price simultaneously and sequentially. q1=100-10p1+...
micurb's user avatar
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Uniform price vs. pay-as-bid auctions in energy markets

These two types of auctions are most commonly used in the energy trading markets. What would be advantages and disadvantages of each? And in the end, can we expect them to deliver similar outcome? One,...
bajun65537's user avatar
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1 answer
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Equilibrium with substitute goods

I am attempting to solve the following problem The demand functions for two substitute goods, the production cost of which equals $c_1$ and $c_2$, are $q_1 = a_1 + b_{11}p_1 + b_{12}p_2$ and $q_2 = ...
Michael's user avatar
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Why wouldn't other firms follow suit if an individual firm decides to cut its price?

Why doesn't the demand curve an individual firm faces in a perfectly competitive market have the same elasticity as it does in a oligopolistic market? Under perfect competition, if a firm increases ...
Ethereal's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
519 views

Cournot oligopoly - first-order condition

I am reading an article that has this description of the first-order condition for a Cournot n-firm game: Take $P(Q) = Q^{-1}$, $\pi_i(q_i, Q) = (Q^{-1} - c_i)q_i$. Then the first-order condition for ...
user219923's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
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Duopoly vs Collusion (quadratic costs)

Suppose there are 2 firms; Demand curve is given by $P=1400 - 5(q_1+q_2)$ and cost function is given by $C_i = 5q_i^2$. For cournot, the best response function comes out to be $q_i=70 - 0.25q_j$ ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Perfect Bayesian Equilibrium in a two stage game with incomplete information

I would like to solve a game where firms have private information about their own type, but only know the distribution of the other firm's type. They interact in two stages, where the strategies ...
unicoerner's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
91 views

Is there any research, theory, or anything which shows how much of a market has to be in power of a few companies to be a force against free market?

According to Free market a free market is a system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and by consumers. In a free market, the laws and forces of supply ...
Pablo's user avatar
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1 answer
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Stackelberg Oligopoly 3 firms [closed]

Imagine that there are 3 firms in a monopolistic market, F1, F2 and F3. Firms 1 and 2 are incumbent firms and act simultaneously whereas Firm 3 observes the actions of both firms before deciding ...
Oliver's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
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Stackelberg with 3 firms

I'm currently trying to solve the following problem: Stackelberg with 3 firms Imagine there are three firms on a monopolistically competitive market. The marginal cost of produc- tion in each ...
Fozoro's user avatar
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How do small firms survive in an oligopoly?

How do small firms survive in an oligopoly if large firms already dominate a huge amount of market share in the market? in terms of the supermarket industry between large supermarkets and small ...
lookbehind's user avatar
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1 answer
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Supermarkets industry market structure

If the industry is dominated by a few major large retailers like Walmart and target with thousands of many other small supermarkets around the country, what is the market structure of the industry? is ...
lookbehind's user avatar
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1 answer
556 views

Non Collusive Cournot Duopoly model with two firms, zero costs and linear demand curve

I am reading Modern Microeconomics by Koutsoyiannis. In a Non Collusive Cournot Duopoly model with two firms, zero costs and linear demand curve. Firm A produces half the total market demand to ...
DrStrangeLove's user avatar
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0 answers
729 views

Will the market for driverless cars move toward a monopoly?

There is a short article in The Economist (link below) where the writer makes the claim that because there are firms the exhibit economies of scale - in driverless technology - they will eventually ...
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1 answer
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3 Firm Stackelberg's Oligopoly Game

Consider a market in which there are three firms, all producing the same good. Firm i's cost of producing qi units of the good is Ci(qi)=0 for qi≥0 for each i∈{1,2,3}; the price at which output is ...
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1 answer
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Finding the demand function [closed]

Here is the problem: Suppose that an oligopolist charges a price of 500 and sells 200 units of output per day. If the oligopolist increases its price about 500, quantity demanded will decline by 4 ...
Hairy's user avatar
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1 answer
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Question on oligopoly.

Consider an oligopoly between two identical firms producing a homogenous good with constant marginal cost where firms face linear market demand. $B_i(q_j)$ denotes firm i’s best response given the ...
studentp's user avatar
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1 answer
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Intuition behind a cournot duopoly nash equilibrium producing a higher output than a monopoly?

I am just wondering if someone could explain the descriptive, not mathematical intuition behind why a cournot equilibrium for a duopoly produces a higher level of output than a monopolist but lower ...
ftse420's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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How exactly is a Bertrand equilibrium defined?

By 'given the price set by other firm' does this mean the firm knows its competitor's exact output? I had read 3 textbooks, but one describes that they have a precise expectation of what their ...
D.I.N's user avatar
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1 answer
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Game Theory of Two Firms

There are only two firms that produce and sell hockey equipment, Abel Corporation (A) and Baker Company (B). They each sponsor special events to try to gain customers. As there are only 2 firms, the ...
Abby Liu's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
64 views

Firm Concentration and Low Inflation

Inflation in the advanced economies since the financial crisis has been surprisingly low. Yet at the same time we’re told that the US economy is losing its dynamism in recent decades. This is ...
user17789's user avatar
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2 answers
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How does market work when there are few buyers and few sellers at the same market?

If I understand it right, correct term for such situation is bilateral oligopoly.
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1 vote
2 answers
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Is the global Automobile Industry changing from an oligopoly to monopolistic competition?

The current situation is the automobile industry is an oligopoly as there are few big firms and massive barriers to entry due to cost. However, The industry seems like it is changing to a monopolist ...
Shane's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
129 views

Studying Oligopolies

I am a very Macro guy, but I need to dive a little in the world of Microeconomics. Specifically, I need to study oligopolies. From the general theory to empirics. Since I do not know the literature, I ...
Gustavo Amarante's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Oligopoly kinked demand graph doesn't make a sense to me

Hello, so in class I learned about the kinked demand curve in oligopoly. Our teacher said that under the sticky price, the demand is inelastic. However, I don't understand how the demand can be ...
Jims Choe's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
2k views

Are market structures on a spectrum?

So I understand that each market structure has their own characteristics, and that for instance Perfect Competition involves high competition, and I believe Monopolistic competition slightly less so, ...
Wolff's user avatar
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1 answer
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Price when both supply and demand have market power

I have an intermediate sector that operates using labor only. There is 1-1 pairs between firms and workers, with profits $$\pi = (Ap - w)\cdot 1$$ $p$ is the price, $A$ productivity, $w$ wage. ...
FooBar's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Cournot game with 2 firms

I have given 2 firms in a market with constant marginal costs and no fixed costs market demand has $D(p)$ The firms play a Cournot game I'm supposed to Calculate the equilibrium quantity for each ...
Astag's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
297 views

Choosing the nondominant strategy in a duopoly

Would a company ever choose a nondominant strategy in a duopoly? Let's take this specific example (2007 AP MicroEcon B #2). Two airlines, Airtouch and Windward, are scheduling flights for either ...
oink's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
137 views

In which market structure does the consumer has almost zero knowledge about the good?

Consider goods that are almost identical (e.g. cement) and require technical knowledge to understand their merit, which an ordinary consumer might not possess. What then is the feature characteristic ...
Shrey Aryan's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
203 views

When a demand function is split, how do we algebraically change function

For example, in tacit collusion for a Bertrand situation, demand would be split between the two colluding firms. How would the reflect upon the demand function? For example D = 100 - 2Q, and for ...
Dave's user avatar
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8 votes
4 answers
21k views

Nash equilibrium of a Bertrand game with different marginal costs

Consider the following game of Bertrand (price competition): There are two players, $1$ and $2$. Each has a publicly known marginal cost, $c_i$. A strategy is a price, $p_i\in\mathbb{R}$. Player $i$'...
Ubiquitous's user avatar
7 votes
0 answers
407 views

Dynamic Bertrand competition when players take turns

Consider the following game: There are two players, $i\in\{1,2\}$ Time is discrete and runs to infinity during periods $t=\{1,2,\ldots\}$ At eat point in time, players have a price $p_i(t)\in\mathbb{...
Ubiquitous's user avatar