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Questions tagged [public-economics]

Public economics (or economics of the public sector) is the study of government policy through the lens of economic efficiency and equity.

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Public Good Provision and median voting principle

This is a question that came in one of the previous year's entrance test to a master's program in a reputed institution in my country. I am also attaching how I tackled the problem in each part of the ...
Kanooz's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
96 views

Public goods on cost of abatement

There is a manufacturer and a fishery. Let $E$ be the effluent of the manufacturer. The marginal cost of abatement borne by the manufacturer is $M C A=8-E$. The marginal external cost borne by the ...
PiVoyager's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
100 views

Does a per-unit tax shift the demand curve too when dealing with an inelastic supply curve?

I’m studying Tax Incidence from Stiglitz’s ‘Economics of the Public Sector’, and it says that the tax incidence doesn’t change whether I use a shift in the demand curve or one in the supply curve. ...
Anu's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
154 views

Are all allocations on UPF pareto optimal?

Are all allocations on UPF pareto optimal? Was studying this in context of Public and Private goods. If someone can help.
Ananya's user avatar
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1 answer
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Am I calculating the Gini coefficient correctly?

I calculated the Gini coefficient through a statistical program (MATLAB), and it came out much larger than I expected. I think I got the Gini coefficient formula right, but I don't know where I went ...
user_A's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
66 views

Why is a cash expense deducted but an expense in-kind not?

Say I am self employed and want a website for my business. If I pay someone for the service I can, in most cases, deduct this from my profit to reduce my tax burden. If I forego billable hours or I ...
Three Diag's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
69 views

Why do Austrians oppose market failure and demand management as policy rationales?

Predominantly free market and small government, albeit with room for redistrbution and funding of health care and education, Austrians stress the planning fallacy, emergent order, and incentives ...
Landjo's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
132 views

Is there a consensus in economics about public housing?

I'm looking for a meta - analysis / review discussing the question if public housing has a net benefit to the public. EDIT: To be more specific I follow the definition used in the United States where ...
CuriousIndeed's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
78 views

Gini Coefficient

If income of all the individuals in a country doubles, what will happen to the Gini coefficient? What happens to Gini coefficient when income of all the individuals in a country increases by 1000?
user43114's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
28 views

Tax policy - theory versus practice

A came across this explanation for how policy makers approach taxes in my textbook: Various taxes would compensate for irrational prices and other factors outside the control of managers that ...
Arash Howaida's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
18 views

Evidence of the Efficiency of Competitive Search Equilibrium

Econ theoretical literature suggests that competitive search equilibrium can arise efficiency allocation by internalizing the congestion externalities. A typical example is that the Hosios condition ...
Alalalalaki's user avatar
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How would a country successfully implement UBI?

Universal basic income is the principal that each citizen in a country gets a fixed amount of money from the government which should suffice for an individual to pay for at least his basic needs each ...
O'Niel's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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How can I show convexity of this value function?

I have set up an optmization problem as follows: $$V(A)=\max_{l, C} \quad u(C,l)$$ Where the only constraint is as follows: $$C=f(l,A)$$ Here $u$ is the utility function which captures social welfare. ...
L. Johnson's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
206 views

How can I formulate the following optimization problem?

I want to set up an optmiization problem for global warming in which a planner determines how much carbon dioxide gas is emitted. Let's say we reduce this problem down to two periods, then I ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
72 views

Closed form solution for the optimal flat tax

I used to think that Saez (2001) provides an explicit formula for the flat tax (it's framed as the optimal top marginal tax rate, but this is the same thing if the economy has a linear tax schedule). ...
afreelunch's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
166 views

The optimal tax rate

According to a famous formula (due I believe to Saez), the optimal maximum tax rate $\tau^*$ is given by $$ \tau^* = \frac{1 - \bar{g}}{1 - \bar{g} + ae}$$ where $g$ is the 'average social marginal ...
afreelunch's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
21 views

Sources for information about Danish general government finances since 2000 (in English)

for a report I have to write about Danish public finances and fiscal policy (budget balance, debt, revenues, expenditures) I'd like detailed information dating back to 2000 or publications giving an ...
Nasan's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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egalitarian PE allocation for public goods

Suppose that there are 2 consumers, 1 private good($x$), 1 public good($y$) exists in this economy. $u^i (x^i , y)=\gamma \ln y +\ln x^i$ and $e^i =\frac{E}{I}$ and $f(z)=z$ where $z$ is the input of ...
noname's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
43 views

How *should* weigh income/consumption at different income levels (esp. to the very poor vs poor) ... perhaps in a 'social welfare function'?

What is the best analysis/literature/text, that gives a theoretical justification for approaches that can be used in practice, for How we should weight income/consumption at different income levels (...
daaronr's user avatar
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0 answers
20 views

How *do* NGOs, think tanks, and governments weigh income/consumption tradeoffs/transfers at different income levels?

In considering policies and transfers, how do we (economists, NGOs, governments & think tanks) weigh income (consumption) tradeoffs between the poor & the very poor? E.g., 'is giving 100 USD/...
daaronr's user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
2 answers
178 views

Is Hal Varian's intermediate microeconomic externality graph wrong?

Here is the capture from Hal Varian's Intermediate Microeconomics chapter Externality. I remember clearly my lecturer said this graph is wrong several years ago, but I cannot remember the argument ...
LJNG's user avatar
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6 votes
3 answers
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Is climate change an economic question?

The assumption that the Keeling Curve can be approximated with a function $$k=A+B\cdot e^{\alpha t}$$ leads to a solution with $A=258.6$, $B=4,243\cdot 10^{-13}$ and $\alpha=0.0166$ with a high ...
Lehs's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
319 views

Any difference between the DWL results from tax and binding price ceiling, what makes govenment choose one over another?

Same as the title. From the Graphs, I cannot see any difference or what makes policymakers to distinguished those two? Here is the capture from Perloff's textbook. Now compare this with the case that ...
LJNG's user avatar
  • 143
4 votes
1 answer
191 views

Pigouvian tax equivalent to Coasian payments

Consider an economy with two goods, $x$ and $y$. Suppose person a's consumption of good $y$ imposes a negative externality on person b. Person a's utility maximisation problem is $$\max_{x_a,y_a} \ ...
dotpad's user avatar
  • 93
5 votes
1 answer
164 views

Pigouvian tax with general utility function

Suppose person a's consumption of good $y$ imposes a negative externality on person b. Person a's utility maximisation problem is $$\max_{x_a,y_a} \ u_a(x_a,y_a),$$ subject to $$p_x x_a+p_y y_a=e_a.$$ ...
dotpad's user avatar
  • 93
1 vote
1 answer
214 views

Is it always a trade off between efficiency and equity?

Is there any situations where we can achieve both equity and efficiency? I'm thinking of Covid 19 vaccine program which is run by Goverment. Although the cost for the program is paid by the money from ...
Katie's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
87 views

Understanding an article in the BMJ about the sugar tax

The research paper Changes in soft drinks purchased by British households associated with the UK soft drinks industry levy: controlled interrupted time series analysis was examining the impact of the ...
Rushi's user avatar
  • 143
2 votes
0 answers
112 views

Event study by Kleven

I was reading the following paper by Henrik Kleven et al. https://www.henrikkleven.com/uploads/3/7/3/1/37310663/kleven-landais-sogaard_nber-w24219_jan2018.pdf The estimate the child penalty on wage ...
hbkn's user avatar
  • 165
1 vote
0 answers
26 views

Is there a source which informs the public of who is buying up newly issued U.S. Government debt?

Is there a list somewhere of who is buying the newly issued debt that will finance the American Rescue Plan (the $1.8 trillion stimulus package signed recently)? Of course, I have an idea of who owns ...
M Development's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
293 views

What are the 'Public Account Liabilities' of the Government of India?

In the Quarterly Report on Public Debt Management for the Quarter Jul - Sep 2020 of the Government of India, an increase in 'Public Debt Liabilities' is declared. What are they?
Ritesh Singh's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
94 views

Total Derivative of a Max Function: Maximizing Social Welfare Function

I'm studying public economics but my question here is purely mathematical in nature. I have a function: $$ V(1-\tau, R) = \max_zu((1-\tau)z+R,z) $$ I need to take the total derivative of this, in my ...
CorporateNationalism's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
32 views

Formalizing unorganized Sector

This is a fairly basic question. What are the real benefits of formalizing the unorganized sector? What does integrating these into the organized sector achieve other than maybe increased tax revenue ...
degonranbu's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
49 views

Consumption Externalities in partial equilibrium analysis

I've been working on a standard partial equilibrium with externalities problem and have been having some difficulty with these (relatively) basic concepts. My issue is primarly with solving for Pareto ...
EconJohn's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
301 views

Is a smartphone app(Non premium or subscribed service like Netflix) a public good?

A smartphone app that provides users with information on surf conditions at their location. (“Surf conditions” refers to information on wind, waves, and ocean tides that is useful for surfers). For ...
Michael Handleman's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
27 views

World Bank and OECD statistics unmatch tax revenue as % of GDP

I have been looking for statistics on tax revenue to GDP ratio of different countries. I've found it on World Bank website. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/GC.TAX.TOTL.GD.ZS?view=chart which ...
ultimatewizard's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
254 views

What is the opposite of public debt?

The opposite of a budget deficit is a budget surplus But what is the opposite of public debt? Instead of govt/state being in debt, having the government have extra money to keep or to lend it to banks ...
Joe Jobs's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
28 views

What are concrete values of public goods?

Are there any good studies on what are estimated values of public goods? For example, suppose a public library, bridge, school, or lighthouse is a public good, what is the value per person for these ...
Some Guy's user avatar
  • 143
3 votes
1 answer
324 views

Do countries with centrally-planned economy have Entrepreneurship as a factor of production?

Let's don't count self-employed people without other employees (like "lone wolf" craftsmen) and people who have an illegal business as entrepreneurs. By centrally-planed economy I mean an ...
KarmaPeasant's user avatar
  • 1,135
2 votes
1 answer
119 views

Coase theorem study material

I'd like to read a more detailed/mathematical analysis on the subject of Coase's theorem. Could you perhaps suggest any advanced textbook/paper on the matter?
user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
38 views

Unions, right to work laws [closed]

Can anyone explain what right to work laws are? along with any thoughts about unions. Do they actually benefit the worker and overall market? Thank you.
user26090's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
45 views

Can I use the released data on AER and JPE in my own research without permission?

I don't think JPE has suggested a specific license. However, the journal did say that the data policy is adopted from American Economic Review (AER). AER did suggest a license of Creative Commons ...
dodo's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
26 views

Efficiency-related reason for net social benefits from income taxation

Found a question that I cannot really find an answer to. I am being asked to consider an economy with many households and assume that the government can only generate revenue by taxing households' ...
bajun65537's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
58 views

utility from providing public good as explained in Hindriks textbook

I think I understood the highlighted part: basically, by increasing $g^1$ my utility increases because more public good is being provided but at the same time it decreases because I have less money to ...
bajun65537's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
26 views

Papers on the rate of returns for government-run pension plans

I'm looking for papers studying the implied rate of return for various government pension programs around the world. Both historical and expected returns. Or any study that looks at the taxes for the ...
Carl Jakobsson's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
349 views

Equity-efficiency tradeoff examples

What could be an example of equity-efficiency tradeoff in healthcare, social protection or defense? For environment I did think of pollution permits that can cause geographical differences in ...
bajun65537's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
51 views

Empirically checking efficiency and equity

I am aware that because of externalities or public goods (or for other reasons) there can be no allocative efficiency on the market. I am also aware that policy makers' subjective judgement of the ...
bajun65537's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
169 views

nash equilibrium public good - is this correct? [closed]

Two players, 1 and 2, simultaneously choose their consumption of a public good. Given the consumption choices, g1 and g2, player 1 derives a marginal benefit of MB1 = 10 - (g1 + g2), while player 2's ...
user708015's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
371 views

Sign of income effect is ambiguous

When discussing the standard neoclassical model of labor supply, I have seen it is assumed that the sign of the income effect is ambiguous. Could anyone please explain this assumption, and more ...
vsh1996's user avatar
  • 13
1 vote
1 answer
166 views

Show that this income tax is effectively a lump sum tax

This is a standard income, leisure tradeoff model. $$ \max_{c,l} \min\{c; l\} $$ $$s.t. \space c = w(1-t)(1-l)$$ $l$ is leisure (where total time is 1), $w$ is wage, $c$ is consumption, and $t$ is ...
Yejin's user avatar
  • 213
1 vote
2 answers
82 views

Can a progressive marginal taxation be regressive in terms of average tax rate?

Or does progressive marginal taxation imply that it is a progressive average taxation? Here, I mean that if $T(Y)$ is a tax function of income, marginal tax rate would be $dT/dY$ and average tax rate ...
Yejin's user avatar
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