Questions tagged [public-goods]

In economics, a public good is a good that is both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be effectively excluded from use and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others.

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How do economists explain why people contribute to Wikipedia?

What incentives do contributors have? I believe they earn no money. And usually, they earn no reputation either, because most of the contributions are anonymous. I believe this is a public goods game. ...
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Why is a fire service considered to be a non-rival service, while a highway is considered to be a rival good?

We consider highways to be an example of an impure private good because while it is non-excludable, it is a rival good. That is, another person's consumption (usage) of the highway affects my usage of ...
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14 views

What are concrete values of public goods?

Are there any good studies on what are estimated values of public goods? For example, suppose a public library, bridge, school, or lighthouse is a public good, what is the value per person for these ...
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If public roads are public goods, in what way are they non-rivalrous?

I get why, say, the military is a public good, but I don't get why public roads are public goods, since they can't be non-rivalrous, given that at any time only a subset of the population can actually ...
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Why are there fewer high schools than elementary schools?

In nearly every public school district in the U.S., one can observe the following pattern: There are fewer middle schools than elementary schools. And there are fewer high schools than middle schools. ...
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1answer
57 views

Simple General Equilibrium Model of Public Goods: Intuition?

We assume a two person economy, denoted by person A and B. Good y is an ordinary private good, and each person begins with an allocation of this good given by $ y^{A*} $ & $ y^{B*} $ respectively. ...
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utility from providing public good as explained in Hindriks textbook

I think I understood the highlighted part: basically, by increasing $g^1$ my utility increases because more public good is being provided but at the same time it decreases because I have less money to ...
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1answer
60 views

nash equilibrium public good - is this correct? [closed]

Two players, 1 and 2, simultaneously choose their consumption of a public good. Given the consumption choices, g1 and g2, player 1 derives a marginal benefit of MB1 = 10 - (g1 + g2), while player 2's ...
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Public Bads and Non-Excludability

The term "public bad" is sometimes used for "goods" which, like public goods, are non-excludable and non-rival, but which tend to lower rather than raise welfare. Air pollution is an example. For a ...
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1answer
56 views

(Microeconomics) How to classify Public Goods and Common Resources in Externalities?

In Microeconomics there are 4 types of externalities - Positive Consumption Externality, Positive Production Externality, Negative Consumption Externality, and Negative Production Externality. And ...
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1answer
84 views

Pareto Efficient level of Public Good

As part of self study towards an entrance exam, I am solving the following question. There are two consumers in the economy and two goods, one private and one public. The utilities of the consumers ...
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How is it decided whether a societal need should be met by using a public project or private enterprise?

I know this is a large question, so I'm looking for a broad, general understanding only. Are there any principles using which it may be decided to meet a societal need using a public project rather ...
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2answers
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Are social goods and public goods the same thing?

I am confused as to they are the same or different?
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1answer
69 views

Why is Walras equilibrium inefficient when we are dealing with public goods?

I know that when we have public goods we have that: $$MRT = MRS_a + MRS_b$$ Though I fail to understand why does this makes Walras equilibrium inefficient. Thank you very much for your help!
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1answer
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Nash equilibrium - mistake in proof of paper?

I have a question regarding the proof of Proposition 1 in Besley and Ghatak (2007) in Appendix A of their paper. It is a quite highly cited paper but I believe there is a mistake in the proof of their ...
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Can the internet be characterized as a public utility?

The idea of what a public utility is, economically, rather than just legally is not a new point of discussion. Philosophers like John Stuart Mill argued for the public provision of water and gas, ...
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336 views

Public Goods - Voluntary provision

I am currently reading the book "Microeconomics: Principles and Analysis" by Cowell (2006), page 452-453. e have a two-commodity world, in which there are ${n_h}$ agents (households): commodity 1 is a ...
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1answer
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How do we determine if wealth will be created or destroyed (and how much) when we want to provide (quasi)public goods?

It seems quite simple under framework of free market, when there are no taxes or subsidies,price celling or price floors, etc, that can mess up the market: if there is profit (or will be, according to ...
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Calculate power for multiple rounds of public goods experiment

I would like to calculate/simulate the a-priori necessary sample size for a repeated public goods experiment. $N$ Participants play $R$ rounds of a public goods game (linear, voluntary contribution ...
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1answer
50 views

Aggregating in a Continuum

I am working with the following Economic model of labour and consumption decisions: I have a population whose mass is normalized to one of consumers. They derive utility from consumption $c$,...
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1answer
73 views

Is a hyperlink a kind of informational public good?

Links analysis algorithms on the web take the incoming links to a webpage as a sign of its popularity. Given this, can we consider web hyperlinks, in aggregate, as a kind of public good? I am curious ...
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1answer
741 views

Free rider problem in game theory

Suppose a town is building a bridge, and it costs $B$. There are $n$ villagers. Each village's valuation of the bridge is private information, $v_i$. It is common knowledge that this valuation is ...
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Economic valuation of green spaces using GIS

I was wondering if there are any standard methods that are employed to obtain insight of the economic value of tree cover in a particular area. I assumed using negative difference vegetation index ...
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Asymmetric Public Goods Game Reference request

I am doing a literature search and wondering if anyone has any good references on something related to the following topic: a one shot public goods game with asymmetric costs and benefits. We can ...
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2answers
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Does the government have a role to play in certifying people's abilities for the labor market?

The nature of information often makes it look like a public good. Is this the case for certification of peoples abilities? Is there a role the government could play in certifying people's abilities? ...
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2answers
990 views

Pareto efficient quantity of public good (quasi-linear preferences)

I am doing a question on finding the Pareto efficient quantity of a public good. Instead of using the condition $\sum MRS_i = c'(G)$ where $c(G)$ denotes the cost of the public good, it asks you to ...
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Pigouvian subsidies for non-linear marginal external benefits

Suppose an agent is choosing how much $x$ to consume and $p_x=200$. If the agent's marginal private benefit is $MPB(x)=300/x$ and $x$ takes only integer values, then he will choose to purchase just ...
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1answer
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Why two goods are of different types of Cross Elasticity if we swap them in formula?

I am using this formula for calculating Cross elasticity of demand: $ E_{XY}^D = \Large\frac{(Q_2^X - Q_1^X)(P_2^Y + P_1^Y)}{(Q_2^X + Q_1^X)(P_2^Y - P_1^Y)} $ If $E_{XY}^D$ > 0 Then goods X and Y ...
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About Lindahl equilibrium and Pareto Optimality

Let an economy with 20 consumers, one private good $x_2$ and one public good $x_1$. The public good is produced using the private good as input with the following technology $x_1=g(z)=z^{1/2}$, where $...
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1answer
52 views

Are all fixed capital public goods?

fixed capital: any kind of real or physical capital (fixed asset) that is not used up in the production of a product public goods: goods that are non-rival and non-excludable in consumption Both of ...
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397 views

Is information technology going to turn most “common goods” into private goods?

Common goods, (not public) are so because they are non-excludable and rival. Often this reflects the impracticality of excluding some users, rather than an absolute impossibility. For example, a park ...