Questions tagged [risk]

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How to interpret the (expected) exposure and CVA of an option or a single share

I have a quick (hopefully simple) question regarding the interpretation of the expected exposure of a call option and a single share. I've done some computations on the formula for the expected ...
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How to calculate indentical cash flows?

So i have this question: Homemade leverage Companies A and B differ only in their capital structure. A is financed 30% debt and 70% equity; B is financed 10% debt and 90% equity. The debt of both ...
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1answer
108 views

Why do riskier investments pay more?

I'm talking about bonds, stocks, and the sort. I understand that an individual investor that's planning to invest, say, 50% of his savings, may require a higher expected gain to go for a riskier ...
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Why does it seem like the average cost threshold protocol has a possible gain but no chance of loss?

So, the average cost threshold protocol is a theoretical protocol for crowd funding club goods (it can also be used to crowd fund public goods, but I'll only focus on club goods in this post). It is ...
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Transformation of random variables and second order stochastic dominance

Suppose $X$ and $Y$ are two random variables where $X$ has SOSD (second order stochastic dominance) over $Y$. Let $g(\cdot)$ be a monotonic function and $X' = g(X)$ and $Y' = g(Y)$. Under what ...
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Can I recreate an experiment on Allais paradox using student grades as payoffs?

For a project in experimental economics, I thought of doing something related to expected utility theory/prospect theory, but using grades instead of money. Is this reformulation of the Allais ...
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Can aggregate risk to the economy be insured, and how?

There has been a lot of discussion for a while now over how the short market on Tesla is quite crowded. This got me thinking of what possible benefits the short market bestows upon the economy as a ...
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3answers
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Mean vs. variance - which is dominant?

I am currently trying to gain some basic understanding of the mean-variance tradeoff. However, since I do not have an economic education background, I am struggling with some issues. Currently I am ...
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1answer
58 views

Construct utility function for a risk-averse agent

I am trying to construct utility function for an agent who can be risk-seeking or risk-averse. We have an agent $i$ who has an ideal point $x$ in a policy space $X = [0,1]$. There is a policy (option) ...
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232 views

Why is everyone suggested to specialize their education?

Why is so common to suggest university students to specialize in order to get a better paid job? This goes completely against the principle of diversification of investments, in order to decrease ...
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2answers
108 views

When does gambling reduce risk?

Suppose that you face risk. It is obvious that taking gambles whose outcomes are negatively correlated with the outcomes of your other gambles can reduce your overall risk ('hedging'). My question, ...
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1answer
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Value of Statistical Life and Risk

I have been reading a paper by Bove & Elia (2011), where they quote a definition of the value of statistical life from Bellavance, Dionne & Lebeau (2009). I have tried making my peace with the ...
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How to estimate market risk using only publicly available data?

How can I calculate market risk for the US Stock Market (NYSE or NASDAQ) using only freely accessible data? I'm only interested in the market risk of the whole economy not of different industries, ...
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What were the liquidity requirements prior to Basel III?

I am investigating the impact of enforcing the Basel III liquidity requirements with a focus on the LCR. I have found some information about regulations in fore prior to Basel III in Sweden and ...
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1answer
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Why does Mascolell define second-order stochastic dominance as such?

Is not Mascolell's definition in his microeconomic theory of the second-order stochastic dominance narrower? He defines for distribution functions with the same mean only. Although he gives some ...
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5answers
508 views

References for particular definitions of risk and uncertainty

I have some doubts about risk vs. uncertainty. I have read the thread "What is the difference between risk, uncertainty and ambiguity" and have skimmed through Knight's "Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit" ...
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1answer
135 views

Swaps and systemic risk

I understand the systemic risk that can be associated with the trading of credit default swaps, but is it the same with interest rate swaps? What was the "default rate" on interest rate swaps during ...
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Are risk-costs a form of external costs?

An example to make to question more clear: With the use of nuclear power plants come several risk-costs (the risk of a nuclear disaster). These costs aren't included in the energy price and there is ...
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1answer
227 views

Inc Linear Transformation of Bernoulli Utility

According to MWG Proposition 6.B.2, it illustrates that the expected utility form is preserved only by increasing linear transformation. What is the significance of this proposition? The part I ...
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Consequentialist View of Risk

In MWG, the authors introduce the consequentialist view of risk by assuming for any risky alternative, only the reduced lottery over final outcome matters to decision maker. From philosophical view, ...
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How a utility function which is both DARA and CRRA can be explained?

I'm studying risk aversion and I cannot make a intuitive explain about the utility function which is DARA and CRRA. for instance, let's say, $\ln W$, where $W$ stands for one's wealth. by the ...
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Certainty Equivalents and Risk Premiums in Expected Utility Theory for Asymmetric Distributions

I want to calculte risk-premiums in order to assess how much risk-averse customers would be willing to pay for an insurance against an uncertain loss modeled by a random variable $X$. How would a risk-...
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2answers
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VaR and rating for commercial banks

I would like to know if there exist a database where Value at risk of commercial banks are. Beyond that if there is a connection between the rating from agency (as S&P, Fitch etc..) and the VaR ...
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Do stock markets price in existential risk (i.e. global nuclear war)?

Question Moved from Money StackExchange: https://money.stackexchange.com/questions/74002/do-stock-markets-price-in-existential-risk-i-e-global-nuclear-war Q: Do stock markets price in existential ...
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1answer
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Is there a good mechanism to incentivize leveraged firms to take less risks?

It seems that there are some circumstances, say when the government foresees a financial crisis, where it would like firms to hedge, take less riesk etc. However, leveraged agents benefit from risk, ...
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2answers
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How to have same utility function for two persons?

I have a question regarding utility functions: Utility can be defined as follows: $U=1+e^{\frac{x}{RT}}$ U:Utility x: What we want to find the utility for (Certain equivalent) RT: Risk tolerance ...
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Why don't firms and individuals do much more risk management? Couldn't they all hedge all kinds of risks financially?

There are many risks in the economy that agents could hedge. For example, house prices can go up or down, healthcare costs canchange, gas prices constantly change in fact, food prices,etc. They all ...
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Negative expected value; risk neutral choice

Suppose there are two options: (1) take a gamble with 50% chance you win \$100 and 50% chance you lose \$110 or (2) don't take the gamble at all and win/lose nothing. Would the risk-neutral take the ...
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Is DARA utility implying CRRA most of the time?

The Wikipedia page on risk aversion states that a "Constant Relative Risk Aversion implies a Decreasing Absolute Risk Aversion, but the reverse is not always true". Let me decompose this statement in ...
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381 views

Does dollar cost averaging actually have any advantage over one time investment?

Some banks promote savings plans by stating that investing a fixed amount of money in regular time intervals minimizes the average buying price or the downside risk (dollar cost averaging). Since the ...
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2answers
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Is the loan principal ever delivered in pieces over time?

Not sure if this is the right place for this question but it's more of a theoretical finance question than a personal finance question. So a loan has a principal amount that is given to the borrower ...
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1answer
94 views

Why is there consumption sharing in Arrow-debreu time-zero complete markets trading model?

Specifically, I am looking at this paragraph ...
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2answers
428 views

What is the need for a special purpose entity/vehicle in mortgage backed securities

What is the need to create a special purpose entity/vehicle (SPV) for mortgage backed securities? What potential risks are avoided due to the creation of SPV? It is my naive idea that the holder of ...
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Sanity of lending out made-up money

Background I've done some research to get an understanding into the issue I want to ask about. Regrettably, I found out general descriptions of the mechanism and/or evidently biased explanations, ...
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1answer
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How is project value enhanced by uncertainty in market payoff?

I was reading about the concept of real options valuation. It says that ROV has shown that uncertainty in market pay-off enhances the project value (V). How is that? Will it be possible to explain ...
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What is the average economic value of a human life?

What is the economic value of a human life? If there are multiple methods to use in calculating, what are they, which method is preferred, and why? Considerations/sub-questions on methods A. Is the ...
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2answers
221 views

Will high computing power substitute the certainty-equivalence assumption?

Bloom in a recent JEP paper considers that "the increase in computing power has made it possible to include uncertainty shocks directly in a wide range of models, allowing economists to abandon ...
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1answer
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Risky Assets over Bernoulli Utility

My question is about 6.C.4. of Mas-Colell et.al.'s Microeconomic Theory book. We have N risky assets with returns $z_n, n = (1,...,N)$ per dollar invested which are distributed over $F(z_1,...,z_n).$ ...
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1answer
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Independence axiom of lottery when $\alpha \ge 1$

When studying preference over lotteries we learned the independence axiom which goes like this: The preference relation $\succsim$ on the space of simple lotteries $\mathscr{L}$ satisfies the ...
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How do governments deflect risk through greater volatility in the housing market?

Source: p 123 of 296, Understanding Housing Policy, by Brian Lund Although housing immobility limits the impact of globalisation, its influence on financial and labour markets magnifies ...
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1answer
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Perfect risk sharing in Arrow-Debreu w/ the same subjective beliefs over states

So I'm looking at a 2-agent Arrow-Debreu economy with one good. Consumption and endowments are zero in t=0, and 2 states are possible in t=1 with aggregate endowment in both states equal to 1. We ...
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231 views

Relative risk aversion and lotteries exercise

Given a consumer with a utility function, $u(w)$, and a wealth of $w>1000$. Assuming that the consumers relative risk aversion is constant and equal to 1, that is $R_r(w)=1$ for $w>0$, the ...
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Probability of states of nature

I've been given the following question and would really appreciate any help on part a. I've looked over all of my resources for this course and we have always been given the probability of the ...
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What is the necessity of the FDIC in the US banking system?

A bank's basic function is to "borrow short and lend long". In other words, it borrows money from depositors over the short term, promising to repay it on demand, while it lends most of that money out ...
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1answer
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How to evaluate if an activity is likely to produce a positive ROI?

I am trying to establish if it would be worth my while to sell a product in a particular online marketplace but am unsure how to evaluate if it would be financially worth my while. The marketplace in ...
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655 views

What metrics would indicate a house bubble rather than genuine market values?

There are concerns that Auckland, New Zealand, is currently experiencing a housing bubble. Auckland is one of the top 10 cities in the world on a housing unaffordability index. The question is - ...
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What can we conclude from the overdetermined equity premium puzzle?

The equity premium: A puzzle (Mehra and Prescott (1985)) lays out the basic problem with equity returns: Restrictions that a class of general equilibrium models place upon the average returns of ...
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1answer
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Question about constant relative risk aversion

The question: Consider a person with constant relative risk aversion $p$. (a) Suppose the person has wealth of $100,000$ and faces a gamble in which he wins or loses $x$ with equal probabilities. ...
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Intuition behind risk premium

In Lecture 20 of MIT's Microeconomics course, a situation is proposed where a 50/50 bet will either result in losing \$100 or gaining \$125 with a starting wealth of \$100. It is stated that a person ...
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How can I construct a process for cumulative returns that is riskless?

This question is a little more specific than the title. Here I use the same notation that is set forth in this other question about cumulative returns (the sum of return observations). That is, let $...