Questions tagged [unemployment]

Unemployment is the condition of one who is capable of working, actively seeking work, but unable to find any work.

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112
votes
16answers
20k views

How will non-rich citizens make a living if jobs keep getting replaced by robots and are outsourced?

Decades ago a factory job could support a wife and kids until retirement and they offered insurance, benefits, etc. Now, no more unions, those jobs as well as tech and customer service jobs are ...
29
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3answers
5k views

What has caused the recent 25% unemployment rate in Spain?

The unemployment rate in Spain has recently been fluctuating around 25%. What has caused this?
23
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2answers
3k views

Should we expect more structural technological unemployment if growth becomes more limited by natural resources and less by labour?

Technological unemployment, where unemployment arises from (with some oversimplification) workers being replaced by machines, has so far been temporary as new jobs were created that replaced the old ...
11
votes
3answers
6k views

Is 'full employment' synonymous with 'the natural rate of unemployment'?

Is the phrase 'full employment' synonymous with the phrase 'the natural rate of unemployment'? Parkin, et al. (2010) seem to use these two terms interchangably in chapter 20, but looking up these two ...
10
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2answers
1k views

Why does immigration boost the economy? (or does it not...?)

I'm a novice at macroeconomics, and trying to understand the effect of immigration (from developing nations) on the economy of a developed nation. Specifically, I am considering the effect when the ...
9
votes
3answers
5k views

What effect does changing the retirement age have on employment?

I had an interesting casual discussion with a colleague the other day. A lot of western economies at least, such as New Zealand, have some form of retirement pension. It New Zealand it's called ...
8
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2answers
300 views

Solving Kaplan and Menzio: Shopping Time

Kaplan and Menzio's shopping time model is a search&matching unemployment model where we, for a steady state equilibrium, need to determine to variables: $J$: Value of a worker $u$: unemployment ...
8
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3answers
217 views

Does immigration help to sustain welfare in rich European countries?

There is a lot of discussions about immigration and its effect on economies lately in Europe, so I'd like to ask a question. Is it true that immigration helps to sustain welfare in rich European ...
6
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3answers
1k views

Has the natural rate of unemployment decreased with modern travel and the Internet?

The natural rate of unemployment is a combination of structural unemployment and frictional unemployment. Structural unemployment is caused by a surplus of labor at a given wage in a given area. ...
6
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2answers
120 views

Minimum Wage effects on Adjacent Cities

When a city like Seattle raises the minimum wage to 15/hr, how does it affect the labor market in adjacent cities? Are there examples, studies or accepted practices to address: Difficulty staffing ...
6
votes
3answers
5k views

How does an increase in the price of "non-wage-goods" increase employment?

Keynes (1936, Chapter 2) says that based on the classical theory, "there are only four possible means of increasing employment", the fourth of which is: an increase in the price of non-wage-goods ...
6
votes
1answer
373 views

Why are there so many migrants in the modern world?

I want to ask you if there is an explanation in your science of why there are so many migrants in the modern world? I live in Russia, and after the dissolution of the USSR a lot of people here had ...
6
votes
1answer
308 views

The Shapiro-Stiglitz model. Why under full employment do unemployed workers find jobs instantly?

Under the Shapiro-Stiglitz model the No-Shirking Condition is: $$w=\bar{e}+\left( \rho +\frac{\bar{L}}{\bar{L}-NL}b \right)\frac{\bar{e}}{q}$$ Where: $\bar{e}=$ exerted effort by employees $\rho=$ ...
5
votes
1answer
364 views

What were the factors that caused the Philips curve to stop working during the 1970s?

Philips curve says that inflation and unemployment were inversely correlated. In the 1970s, stagflation happened. If Philips curve hold true, stagflation is impossible. What were the factors that ...
5
votes
5answers
244 views

Why do firms losing money almost always reduce labor costs via layoffs instead of pay cuts?

At least in the United States, firms seem to almost always reduce labor costs via layoffs rather than pay cuts. Pay cuts are so rare that they're literally headline news. From an economic standpoint, ...
5
votes
2answers
239 views

What is the logic behind this sentence in Keynes's General Theory?

It seems hard for me to understand the underlying logic of this sentence in Chapter 2 of this book: They do not seem to have realised that, unless the supply of labour is a function of real wages ...
5
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4answers
2k views

Relationship between Real Interest Rate and Employment

The country of Kingsland is considering the introduction of a compulsory retirement saving scheme. Under this scheme all workers are required to save ten per cent of their annual wages and ...
4
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3answers
289 views

What keeps minimum wage rates in balance?

I would posit that the minimum wage is determined more on a political than an economic basis. The fact is that there are more wage earners than business owners and, generally speaking, the wage ...
4
votes
1answer
146 views

Would a Job Guarantee impact Cost of Living?

What effect would a job guarantee, a method of achieving full employment often suggested by modern monetary theorists, have on the cost of living? In the case of student loans offered by the ...
4
votes
3answers
7k views

Change in the way unemployment is calculated in the US?

In the last 8 years has their been a change in the way unemployment is calculated? Is there a nuance that has changed in the polling info? Many of my right wing comrades claim the Obama administration ...
4
votes
2answers
382 views

Why are the Fed's goals often described as the "dual mandate" and not the "triple mandate"?

The Federal Reserve Act Section 2A states: The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Open Market Committee shall maintain long run growth of the monetary and credit ...
4
votes
1answer
94 views

Search and matching model: effect of hiring cost on wage curve

What effect does the hiring cost have on the wage bargaining outcome (wage curve)? In Cahuc, Carcillo, and Zylberberg: Labor Economics, they derive the following wage curve: $$w = z + (y-z) \frac{\...
4
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1answer
125 views

Labour Market: simple macroeconomic modeling

I just started reviewing macroeconomic modeling for an upcoming entry exam, and I'm not sure about my answers in this application: Suppose that the economy of a country has a representative firm ...
4
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2answers
97 views

A confusion regarding search and matching model in Pissarides's "Equilibrium Unemployment Theory" book

I was studying chapter 1 of the book "Equilibrium Unemployment Theory" and I got confused about the way Pissarides has defined the probability of a firm not finding a worker in a short time interval $...
4
votes
1answer
125 views

Reasons for the recent rise in long-term unemployment

Kroft et al document the raise of long-term unemployed in the US during the recent crises. This is an impressive figure from their paper: They show that the raise does not come from compositional ...
4
votes
0answers
59 views

Estimating Job Vacancy rate empirically

I'm currently reading up on matching models in terms of their ability to describe frictional unemployment, they generally follow a cobb-douglas form. $$M(u,v)=m=\mu u^\alpha v^{1-\alpha}$$ Where $M(...
3
votes
2answers
290 views

Does working abroad cause less unemployment? Or is it actually harmful (directly or opportunity cost)?

This question is from subjective origins but is (supposed to be) objective. The context of this question arises from people in third world countries going abroad to work. Often they are seen as money-...
3
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1answer
28 views

Data: Vacancies in the US before 2005

Shimer (2005) says These [separation shocks] introduce an almost perfectly positive correlation between unemployment and vacancies, an event that essentially never been observed in the United ...
3
votes
1answer
259 views

How do I verify Philips curve empirically for recent years?

I wanted to verify the relationship between inflation and unemployment empirically, so I took data from the World Bank and used excel to correlate them. I got a very, very bad correlation between ...
3
votes
1answer
35 views

Areas of Europe with more women than men have higher GDP and lower unemployment. Why might this be? [closed]

Using Eurostat data I've found that regions of Europe with more women than men (i.e. female biased sex ratio) have higher GDP and lower unemployment than areas with male biased sex ratios. any idea ...
3
votes
2answers
102 views

Does migration exacerbate (albeit delay) the problem of aging, economically-inactive populations in Western societies?

As a layman, I've always understood that there is a general consensus amongst economists that "immigration is economically beneficial" to rich Western countries (like Britain) who have aging ...
3
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2answers
43 views

Technological unemployment

I am doing a project on technological change in the job market, that is the substitution of routine occupations and increasing demand for high-skilled jobs. I have done some research on this and now I ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Difference between frictional unemployment and seasonal unemployment

Julie spent the entire summer of 2007 working for a tree planting company in Central British Columbia. At the end of July, her contract ended because of weather conditions. She spent the month of ...
3
votes
1answer
195 views

What does it mean when the natural rate of unemployment is greater than the actual rate?

According to this graph: I just don't get when natural unemployment is greater than actual unemployment. Why is this the case?
3
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0answers
18 views

Are there any net benefits in reducing/increasing tourist-oriented retail business?

Hong Kong is currently experiencing a slump in foreign tourist-oriented retail sales. Shops selling jewellery, watches, infant formula or Chinese medicine experienced a 25-35% decline YoY in August. ...
3
votes
3answers
94 views

Can lower working hours beat unemployment?

The common sense reasoning is downright simple: if X hours of works are needed per month, and Y people are available to work, give each person X/Y hours of work each month. I understand that there ...
2
votes
1answer
193 views

Would a Federal Job Guarantee hurt the economy?

I've been reading about how a job creation program would disrupt the private sector. One of the main things I kept seeing was that the a FJG will result in the elimination of thousands of jobs. So, ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

Why high levels of inflation doesn't leads to high levels of employment?

According to the original Phillips curve $\pi=(\mu+z)-u$ there's a negative relation between inflation and unemployment. That being said, if there were a really high level of inflation, then there ...
2
votes
1answer
244 views

Limitation of Unemployment rate

What is the rationale behind government not including discouraged workers who have given up looking for jobs out of frustration given the state of economy? This under-reports the job market and at ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

1929 stock market crash and unemployment rate

Thomas Sowell has repeatedly made the case that government intervention is largely responsible for the Great Depression. For example, he notes what happened with the unemployment rate in the months ...
2
votes
1answer
131 views

How can we measure the size of the new uber-driver-type economy?

Uber has probably hundreds of thousands of drivers just in the US. There are many other gig economy firms growing quickly, not only lyft, but also Amazon Prime, bite squad, etc. Is there some place in ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Can anyone help me understand the Motrtensen-Pissarides model?

I am seeking help with the Mortensen-Pissarides model in discrete time? Basically, I was given the following in class example (which we didn’t complete do to time constraints associated with the end ...
2
votes
1answer
43 views

Does the sudden spike in the US jobless claim pose systemic risk to the US unemployment insurance system?

There has been an unprecedented short-term increase in US unemployment owing to the Covid-19 crisis. Initial jobless claims soared to a seasonally adjusted 3.28 million in the week ended March 21, ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Difference between unemployment rate between ILO and bureau of labor statistics

Why there are differences between the unemployment rate of the US between the data of the bureau of labor statistics and the ILO (international labor organization). Have they different definitions of ...
2
votes
2answers
74 views

Is Debt Monetization Equivalent to transferring money from rich to poor?

I'm reading Ray Dalio's "How the Economic Machine Works", and he says that there are four factors contributing to deleveragings in economies: 1) Debt Reduction 2) Austerity 3) Transferring wealth ...
2
votes
1answer
417 views

Testing the long run phillips curve / Contradicting empirical results?

I've been working with some historical macroeconomic data of the Canadian economy and am having difficulty empirically testing the Phillips curve long run and short run versions. I got the data from ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Why does the Federal Reserve seem to hold so much weight on the unemployment rate, relative to labor participation?

The title is the question. In the press conference held yesterday, the Chair referenced "unemployment" 18 times, relative to "participation" 3 times. If the labor participation is at the lowest ...
2
votes
1answer
154 views

In what way is the labor participation rate useful for tracking unemployment?

I'm trying to do some research on unemployment and labor participation rate in the US to figure out what people are talking about. For instance, the Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate for Sept ...
2
votes
1answer
110 views

UK unemployment for July 2016

Why was the UK unemployment rate in July 2016 lower than forecasted by the Bank of England?
2
votes
0answers
11 views

Unemployment with Insiders-Outsiders. What is a core employee?

In Dynamic Macroeconomics book, by Alogoskoufis, on chapter 17, he analyses a model of aggregate fluctuations that is based on periodic nominal wage contracts and can explain involuntary unemployment (...