11

You are right that it seems strange why a cash-rich company is borrowing. In the case of Apple, the money that they are borrowing is being used to pay dividends to shareholders. The reason why they aren't using their \$200 billion is because doing so would cost them tens of billions of dollars in taxes. The current US tax code taxes corporations at 35% when ...


5

People, particularly business leaders, seem to remain confused about this issue even today. At the core of is the question Is equity finance expensive?. We certainly observe in the data that the realized returns on firm debt are much lower than the realized returns on firm equity. Does this mean that firms have too much equity? If equity capital always ...


5

The first equation can be written as: $$ r_E(Levered) = \frac{E+D}{E}r_E(Unlevered) - \frac{D}{E}r_D $$ Then, isolating the unlevered return gives: $$ r_E(Unlevered) = \frac{E}{E+D}r_E(Levered) + \frac{D}{E+D}r_D$$ And this is the WACC.


4

If you are asking "Is the WACC the amount that the company expects to earn on the stocks and bonds that it holds.." then the answer is no. The WACC, in very simple terms, is the amount of money a company pays to obtain financing for projects. These types of financing are clearly listed in the wikipedia article and clearly extend beyond stocks and bonds ...


4

I don't know if you refer to the extensive margin (some borrowers not being able to get credit) or to the intensive margin (one borrower not being able to get as much credit as (s)he wants). If you are referring to the former, one of the theoretical papers for borrowing constraints on markets with asymmetric information is the following one: Stiglitz and ...


4

All assets which have a finite useful life are depreciated. For example, your patents or copyright might hold for 5 or 10 years but no more. Thus, it is quite coherent to reflect the loss of value through depreciation and amortization. Same goes for a software for example: in 5 years time, a software might be obsolete, so we need to reflect this in the ...


4

Debt is cheap. Flexibility is valuable. They hold debt + cash up to the point where the value of flexibility is still greater than the net cost of servicing the debt minus any interest earnt on the cash. It saves them the transaction costs of re-raising debt when they need it, had they paid it down early. It's cashflow that typically kills businesses, ...


3

Another key feature of those shell companies is that they hide the ultimate beneficiary of the transactions. Banks, insurance companies and most financial services firm must make enquiries as part of the "Know Your Customer" (KYC) regulations: they should be able to find out who will benefit ultimately from the transactions, or in the name of whom they are ...


3

Considering this is an Economics Stack Exchange site, I’m going to answer in the spectre of Financial Economics. These are the most foundational equations and ideas of Financial Economics to understand more complex applied or academic research. 1. Gross yield The gross yield is the yield on an investment before the deduction of taxes and expenses. $$1+R_{t+...


3

A December fiscal year end, which gives a first quarter of three months ending March 30, aligns the fiscal and the tax year. This can be very convenient and in the United States is sometimes required. In addition, some regulated firms like banks are required to prepare documents on calendar quarters regardless of the month of their fiscal year end, and it is ...


3

To illustrate what Tirole has done, let's consider a simpler environment. Consider a utility maximisation problem over two goods, $x$ and $y$. The consumer has utility function $u(x,y) = f(x) + y$, where $f$ is strictly increasing and strictly concave. The consumer's problem is thus $$ \begin{align} \max_{x,y} &\quad f(x) + y \\ \text{s.t.} &\quad ...


3

It appears to me that it is the other way round: The RBS was running out of cash which is why the stock price was dropping. Stocks usually don't affect the immediate operation of a company, since they are traded on secondary markets (stock exchanges) among stock owners, not bought from / sold to the actual company which issued the stock.


2

The point @EnergyNumbers raises is correct, and it's easy to understand from an intuitive standpoint: One of the key roles of financial intermediaries is to match the demand for liabilities of a given tenor to the demand for assets of a given tenor. Financial intermediation allows maturity mismatches to exist in non-finance sectors of the economy by taking ...


2

The first equation is dollars time interest over total dollars. For example, if a company wants to finance a project, issues \$1M in equity with an expected ROI to the investors of 6% and \$4M in bonds at 4%, it's WACC is: $$\frac{(4\%*4,000,000 + 6\% * 1,000,000)}{4,000,000+1,000,000} $$ which for simplicity we can say is $$\frac{(4\%*4 + 6\% * 1)}{4+1}...


2

The concept of $\text{WACC}$ seems pretty straightforward... it is a weighted average percentage, calculated in principle as equation $(2)$ in the question shows. If we have two sources of financing each demanding a different interest rate and with given percentage contribution each to the total funds we want to borrow, then what would be the single ...


2

The assertion of the book is based on the phenomenon of commercial credit - the fact that business-to-business sales almost always are on credit, and the differences between terms-of-credit that a company gives to its customers, compared to the terms of credit that enjoys from its suppliers. It describes the (short-term) phenomenon, peculiar to some, that "...


2

Using the Federal Reserve's definition for M1 (warning, M definitions can vary between countries, so always check the local definition): "M1 is defined as the sum of currency held by the public and transaction deposits at depository institutions (which are financial institutions that obtain their funds mainly through deposits from the public, such as ...


2

If I'm reading it correctly, Table X (page 2633) of Schwert (2000) (Journal of Finance, Hostility in Takeovers: In the Eyes of the Beholder?) says that about 78 percent of deals in 1975-1996 were successful. However, this measure is constructed based on the acquisition of the firm, not the bid of the acquirer, so that if there are multiple bidders this is ...


2

A shell is simply an inactive company - there is a market for shell companies because it allows ordinary persons to buy a ready to go business - for example public traded shells with a stockmarket ticker allow you to skip all the paperwork. Back to topic. A Limited company is a legal person, thus it can buy / sell and hold other companies and assets - sue ...


2

What happens is completely dependent on the owners. They're the ones whose income has been taken anyway. They may be the only ones with the legal power to do anything (depending on the jurisdiction: there may be some countries where the State can intervene in such matters). In some jurisdictions, the directors have a legal obligation to maximise returns to ...


2

They are not the same. Basic accounting equation: Assets = Liability + Shareholder Equity Assets refers to what the company actually owns: cash, property, inventory, etc. Assets are paid for in two major ways: debt (liability) and stock (equity). Essentially, everything a company owns is paid for by a combination of (1) getting loans from other entities ...


2

$\beta$ is the measure of the sensitivity of stock returns to market returns. This has nothing to do with the value of $R^2$. Your results appear to be fine, you can get significant beta estimates but low $R^2$. Why? As measured by $R^2$, 24.56% of variation in Apple returns is accounted for by the variation in the market index, $S$&$P 500$. Clearly, ...


2

In the link one can very clearly see that the company has no contractually short term debt, and in the short-term (i.e. in the next 12 months) has to pay part of its long term debt. Also, that the debt amounts are not included in the line "Accounts payable" Also, one can see its long term debts And no, debt is not only bonds.


1

The original paper (of Altman) is Altman, E. I. (1968). Financial ratios, discriminant analysis and the prediction of corporate bankruptcy. The journal of finance, 23(4), 589-609. We read (p. 593) III. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL "Sample Selection. The initial sample is composed of sixty-six corporations with thirty-three firms in each of the two ...


1

In economics, a firm wants to maximize profit. Your ice cream shop has some costs that vary depending on how many half-gallon ice cream packages are made, and some benefits, the revenue from selling ice cream. The additional cost of making one more package of ice cream is called the marginal cost, and it can change based on how much ice cream you are already ...


1

I think this is what you are looking for. It is a quite interesting paper. I hope it helps.


1

As Kitsune Cavalry noted, organisations like Khan Academy are non-profits that are supported by donations and run for the public good. To address your second question (why would you start a project that requires so much time and not charge anything for it?): the fact that the organisation is a non-profit doesn't mean that the people working there don't make ...


1

Khan Academy is a 501c non-profit. They do some fundraising, they have some regular backers, and some big time contributors like these. I imagine it's a similar case for Anatomy Zone. They are affiliated with a bunch of other non-profits that you can see on the bottom of their front page.


1

What I don't understand is why we discount the profits in year one but don't consider inflation in year one. This seems inconsistent to me. Why do we discount the real profit in the first year and not the nominal profit, or if we assume nominal profits in year one are the same as real profit, why do we discount in year one? As you said, the firm ...


1

Depreciation is tax-deductible. The firm in question pays taxes. If depreciation increases, then taxes paid decrease. If taxes paid decrease, then cash flow increases. ceteris paribus


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