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Essentially, the question of electrification is a trade-off: electrified railways are more energy efficient, the engines often supply more power and they are quieter and without local emissions while at the same time requiring a large up-front cost and additional maintenance. The benefits of electric railways are best played out when running many trains on ...


Your intuition is correct. First, you're right that "marginal cost only depends on variable cost", since \begin{equation} MC(q)=\frac{\mathrm dTC(q)}{\mathrm dq}=\frac{\mathrm d(FC+VC(q))}{\mathrm dq}=\frac{\mathrm dVC(q)}{\mathrm dq}. \end{equation} Next, if marginal cost is some constant $k$, then variable cost must be $VC(q)=kq$, because we can ...


The real reason Europe have a gigant lead of rail network development of (electrical systems, concrete sleepers and automative technology) is because we had to form a national operator owned by the state. This was was of paramount importance for heavy investment plans, effecive operations and intercountry standards.

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