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6

Essentially, the question of electrification is a trade-off: electrified railways are more energy efficient, the engines often supply more power and they are quieter and without local emissions while at the same time requiring a large up-front cost and additional maintenance. The benefits of electric railways are best played out when running many trains on ...


5

Your intuition is correct. First, you're right that "marginal cost only depends on variable cost", since \begin{equation} MC(q)=\frac{\mathrm dTC(q)}{\mathrm dq}=\frac{\mathrm d(FC+VC(q))}{\mathrm dq}=\frac{\mathrm dVC(q)}{\mathrm dq}. \end{equation} Next, if marginal cost is some constant $k$, then variable cost must be $VC(q)=kq$, because we can ...


1

The real reason Europe have a gigant lead of rail network development of (electrical systems, concrete sleepers and automative technology) is because we had to form a national operator owned by the state. This was was of paramount importance for heavy investment plans, effecive operations and intercountry standards.


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