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Thanks to densp for identifying this paper. It refers to a major pilot project undertaken in Namibia Background: The Basic Income Grant (BIG) pilot project took place in the Otjivero-Omitara area, about 100 kilometres east of Windhoek. All residents below the age of 60 years receive a Basic Income Grant of N$100 per person per month, without any ...


9

This is a common area of study in Development Economics. There is for example the Dual-sector model, first developed in 1954. It is very well explained in the link provided, but basically: [the] agricultural sector is typically characterized by low wages, an abundance of labour, and low productivity through a labour-intensive production process. In ...


6

A schematic picture is as follows: Industrialization also means industrialization of Agriculture. This kills land-related jobs in the sector while at the same time it increases output. Inceased output requires preservation since it can't be immediately consumed as fresh product. So jobs are created in the "packaging" business-end of Agriculture, which ...


6

The Economist (Oct 8th, 2016, online, PDF) attempts to answer this question. It defines the global poverty gap as the amount we'd have to transfer to the world's extreme poor (defined as those living below $\$1.90$ a day, at 2011 PPP), in order to lift them to the $\$1.90$ a day threshold. The evolution of this global poverty gap from 1990-2013 is graphed ...


5

The recent development of many "developing countries" and "emerging markets" does not mean that Western colonial powers did not exploit them in the past. Emerging economies owe their modern GDP growth to cheap labor, as (former) Western colonial powers switched their (expensive) manufacturing bases to countries like China, India, etc. In the past, they were ...


4

To complement @rocinante answer the argument described in the question silently assumes that growth can happen only if you steal from somebody. So if the past colonies cannot steal from anybody, they are bound not to ameliorate their material welfare. Assume two persons, $A$ and $B$, that currently have the same unexploited resources. It so happens that in ...


4

Aside from the economic arguments, a big difference was the amount of autonomy for the workers. Consider agriculture and similar rural employment (as servants etc) in the UK, even as recently as 1900. The status of agricultural workers in society was little changed from a medieval serf. They lived in housing provided by their employer. Their employer ...


4

This does depend on whether you're looking to do applied econometric work, in which case statistics is definitely the way to go or something theoretical, in which case a good understanding in the maths you listed will go a long way. Of course it's always better if you understand both - since you're doing a master's in math, you should already be quite fluent ...


3

All country classifications are conventions, which depend on the rule used by the particular institution. There is no hard (ontological) rule on any classification. There is no even consensus on the definition of categories. Advanced/rich/developed/industrialized economies are sometimes used interchangeably, but who is in each of them depend on who is ...


3

I have to say I do not believe in simple all encompassing answers. The reasons behind the differences are probably complex and multitude, varying from country to country. Below are some answers that one runs into and I think these probably account for a share of the inequality. The book Why Nations Fail deals with the first question extensively. It is a ...


3

A good reference is the Barro-Lee Dataset wich gives educational attainment for 146 countries from 1960 to 2010. The data are disaggregated by sex and by 5-year age intervals. Their estimates of educational attainment provide a reasonable proxy for the stock of human capital. An older reference is hosted by the World Bank. In case you need more recent data,...


3

One thing such funds get spent on is corruption: Do Public Fund Windfalls Increase Corruption? Evidence from a Natural Disaster (Nikolova and Marinov (2015)) We show that unexpected financial windfalls increase corruption in local government. Our analysis uses a unique data set on flood-related transfers, and the associated spending infringements, ...


3

There surely is research about the complement(s) of the (low tech) "primitive businesses", i.e. the high-tech and/or innovative businesses. The US CES for instance publishes a BDS-HT (Business Dynamics Statistics - High Tech) report. You can compare these with the core BDS data and get an idea how the high-tech sector differs. The US CES method of high-tech ...


2

Are you looking for general references on Diff-in-Diff (DiD) and Regression Discontinuity (RD)? If yes, a good starting reference at the undergraduate level is probably J. Angrist and J.S. Pischke, Mastering' Metrics: The Path from Cause to Effect, Princeton University Press, 2014. Look at chapters 4 and 5 for RD and DiD. If who want to dig deeper: ...


2

I've read Eric Reinerts book and I do not think it is conspiracy theory because he explains also the economic background of the both symptoms you show. One point he describes is how free trade discussion prefers the developed countries. Industrial production profits a lot more from scale effects than agricultural production. So he says, it is not fair to ...


2

Thee are several issues including what happens about incomes that are not wages, but the main one is Not everybody earns a wage This is an issue for the self-employed (especially in agricultural subsistence economies), but it is also an issue in economies with large numbers of dependants, especially the very young or the very old It also raises the ...


2

They worked at home. Like "Household Engineers" do today, doing everything working from down to dusk like their husbands, and like their husband they shared in the earnings of the household. Until the industrial revolution came each household operated like a mini business. It was the Industrial revolution that divided "work"(e.g. business) from home. ...


2

There is a lot of newish research on the adverse consequences of Globalisation and more generally De-industrialization on low skilled workers in developed economies. A good place to start is Autor, Dorn, Hanson in the AER 2013. David Autor has other interesting work on this topic as well as on automation. Your questions have quite a normative ring to ...


2

Food is the most necessary thing in life. It is not uncommon that undeveloped societies can have as large as 80% of the economy in agriculture. One of the first steps to an industrialized society therefore becomes to make agriculture more efficient. To produce more food per worker. Why? Because otherwise no matter how efficient technology you have outside of ...


2

Update Resource Curse literature attempts to address the issues you are raising, take a look at here and here. Here is an interesting example of a technology transfer case. Original answer They do, in fact, have increased the share of R&D spending by a huge margin in the past 5 years. Some of these countries see commerce, trade and tourism as more ...


2

Let's split the problems into two categories, proximate and fundamental. It is easy to confuse the two categories or mix the problems of fundamental nature with those of proximate. Econoimc historians, in the pursuit of determining the causes of Britain's industrialisation have come up with several plausible explanations. I think we can use their framework ...


2

Just because a country has a lot of resources (including human capital), it does not necessarily form a path for a developed nation. China is also very involved in military conflicts. It just takes one war for a country to drift back decades. Also, you can't ignore the brain drain problem. With that, "developed" nation is a fluid definition. What does that ...


1

Your question brakes down into: - Alternatives to measure "economic development": there are several ways to interpret what development is, it can be social, intensity of money flows, or volume of "money flows". If you look for social development and well-being, the HDI (Human Development Index) is a good start, but there are several others like the Genuine ...


1

From the Chinese perspective, it's "dangerous" because high investment for so many years, particularly when driven by state incentives or by state-owned firms might induce mis-allocation of resources, high indebtness levels and excess capacity (some might say even voluntary, for example dumping in steel to hurt developed countries' industries). For instance, ...


1

The key to the answer is good data on Capital. There is a project (KLEMS), which is computing harmonised (i.e. comparable) information on capital, labour, energy, etc for many countries. At the moment it has information mainly on developed countries, but data for more developing countries are coming up. For example, this is a calculation of the capital-...


1

Your impressions are inaccurate. Woman did not participate actively in the formal labor market in the feudal era. Men could provide enough for their families. The participation of women in the labor market came with the feminist revolution which was active in the U.S. between 1848 and 1980. What you see in the movies is many times just not how it really was....


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This is an interesting observation that has produced a lot of theoretical and empirical research in industrial organization. In fact this phenomenon also occurs in developed economies, for example with gas stations. It is also not limited to location, the broader questions being why competitors in many markets tend to produce very similar products when they ...


1

I appreciate your question because there is an assumed level of individual responsibility. Before I offer my answer, I want to make a recommendation. There is a fantastic book that addresses this question in great detail. It's called, "The Poverty of Nations" by Barry Asmus and Wayne Grudem. If you can get a hold of a copy (it's even available in digital ...


1

I think the best way for an individual citizen to improve their country's economic development is to raise their productivity, while also following ethical standards. "Raising productivity" is a very traditional economic viewpoint, and it basically requires one to move away from rural or subsistence living and towards activities that contribute to society, ...


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The following researchers have written a number of papers and books on this topic: Doran Acemoglu James Robinson You may want to read their papers for a good start.


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