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11

Employment excludes non-salaried directors, volunteers, persons paid by commission only, and self employed persons such as consultants and contractors. The actively trading businesses with zero employees are therefore those businesses where the staff members are drawn exclusively from that group. That may cover most one-person outfits, perhaps some family ...

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Regarding the general question in the title, the reasons why "the same" variable vary across sources depends very much on the particular variable you are talking about. Personally, one of my first shocks when I started working after my undergraduate was the high number of ways the same conceptual variable studied theoretically (e.g. inflation) could be ...

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A variance is an incomplete measure of risk in a sense, that it measures uncertainty in security payoffs, rather than uncertainty in holder's welfare. In the simplest way we can demonstrate this point as follows. Suppose that agents want to marginally increase her holding of an asset by $\xi$ and a unit of asset provides a payoff of $x$, which is a random ...

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Since you're asking a question about the value-added approach to calculating GDP, the answer that follows talks about the value-added approach. It's worth noting, however, that GDP can (and is) also calculated through two other approaches: the expenditure approach and the income approach. In the US, the value-added approach is used primarily in the GDP-by-...

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For alternative measurements of risk, consider: 1. Maximum Adverse Excursion [MAE]- the largest historical loss suffered by a system, trade or investment whether real or back-test. 2. Average True Range [ATR] a measure of price change capturing high/low/close and gaps: http://stockcharts.com/school/doku.phpd=chart_school:technical_indicators:...

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For an alternative approach: Assume we have wealth $W_0$ which is certain. Assume away inflation and things to that effect. If we invest an amount $A$ somewhere (security or whatever), whose future is uncertain, our wealth becomes a random variable $$W_r = W_o -A + A(1+r) = W_0 + Ar, \;\;\; r \geq -1$$ where $r$ is the proportional return, and it can be ...

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A partial answer : I m not sure what measurement the World Bank would recommend, but I suspect that in practice, the expenses that are taken into account to measure whether one is below or above the 1.25$threshold vary from one study to another. For instance in their famous The Economic Lives of the Poor, Banerjee and Duflo write "From each of these ... 2 They are not the same. Basic accounting equation: Assets = Liability + Shareholder Equity Assets refers to what the company actually owns: cash, property, inventory, etc. Assets are paid for in two major ways: debt (liability) and stock (equity). Essentially, everything a company owns is paid for by a combination of (1) getting loans from other entities ... 2 Maybe the earliest economic quantities to be measured are the number of people in a tribe or nation as a measure of economic and military potential. Roman (Roman king Servius Tullius) and ancient Israeli censuses (Prophet Moses duing the Egyptian Exodus) were said to have been conducted in the 6th and 13th centuries before the common era (Wikipedia -- Census)... 1 I think the safest answer is “it depends.” Firstly, the terms “stronger economy” or “enjoy prosperity” are subjective, so I think if you want a stronger answer, you would need to tighten that part of the question up, with more concrete phrasing. Secondly, we would need to pin down the reasons why GDP and GNP diverge. Ireland is a well-known example, where ... 1 You may want to consider this as the difference between the potential to pay and the actual means to pay on hand. Since government revenues will ultimately come from GDP (excepting foreign aid etc.), you will be certain that debt to revenue will be higher (smaller denominator). How useful is this as a measure? I suppose, as with all things, it depends. Debt ... 1 If I interpret your question correctly, you're asking what percentage of Algerian national income is derived from oil and gas extraction. The answer appears to be 30% from the website. I think the problem is you're assuming that the 30% figure means something like '30% of private spending', and so you're trying to account for government spending as well. ... 1 I would start with your generic $$f(t,s) = t \times s$$ and, instead of add weights or factors to this, I would add other variables related to time and satisfaction like: boarding time as function of luggage management ($TL$) times baggage number ($B$), and time to go to seat row ($T_g$) vs time to actually sit ($T_s\$) for the different seat types (Window, ...

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For interest rates, the theory(spelled out as the Fisher equation) is that there are two components to the nominal interest rate. These are the real interest rate and the expected inflation. The real interest rate codifies the economy's 'urgency' or time preference: the idea that you prefer consuming now than tomorrow and so you need to be compensated for ...

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Yes, but... In theory what you suggest is pretty standard text book, and in fact Keynes makes exactly this point in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money as a way of getting a grip on the idea of interest and "Time-Value of Money" (don't have copy to hand, will update reference when I get a moment). The problems come, as always, in ...

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