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7

I think this gives an answer reasonably close to what you're looking for (from the NYTimes article, "In climbing the income ladder, location matters," featuring research by Raj Chetty, Emmanuel Saez, and others). The team of researchers initially analyzed an enormous database of earnings records to study tax policy, hypothesizing that different local and ...


6

Note: I did not vote down on this question, and it is not clear why anyone would do so. Why is so common to suggest university students to specialize in order to get a better paid job? Because the industry evolves and encounters increasingly harder, diverse challenges. Specialized knowledge is essential for coping with those challenges. At the same ...


5

Math is easier if you are smarter. As such, math education is a costly and therefore credible signal of general intelligence. Below are two experiments that try to get around this selection issue by looking at exogenous variation in worker mathematical ability on labor market outcomes. However, a word of caution. They do not present evidence that ...


4

One of the best ways to study the benefit of speaking English, at least within an English speaking country, is by looking at the wage discrimination literature. Some, but not all, of wage discrimination turns out can be explained away by the ability to speak English. These studies are good to look at because of the controls for other factors. For example, it ...


4

Have there been any empirical attempts to estimate the value of being taught specific skills - for example, phonics or solving algebraic equations? If I may be brazen enough to challenge the basis of this question. We first need to have an economic criteria to evaluate a subject in a curriculum before we start analysing its relevance to the labour market . ...


4

There is no solid consensus on the inputs that go into educational achievement or attainment. The list of variables is vast and varied. One of the most common applications of this is attempting to calculate the returns to education - i.e. the average increase in income that results from one additional year of schooling. I myself have performed research on ...


4

Education is indeed in exports according to the US Government's Trade.gov website: Trade in Services: The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis collects and compiles U.S. services import and export statistics. These are released in a monthly press release entitled U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services report (FT900). The services statistics are ...


4

From Unesco's website: Top 10 destination countries: United States (18% of total mobile students) United Kingdom (11%) France (7%) Australia (6%) Germany (5%) Russian Federation (4%) Japan (4%) Canada (3%) China (2%) Italy (2%) This is about headcount, not value-of-services. For 2nd-in-rank UK to nevertheless generate more income in terms of value, it ...


3

Does GDP include education? Yes: GDP is the summed added value of all produced goods and services, this includes education. Is the US the largest education exporter in the world? The US are a big country, so you might want to correct for scale. Here is a graph for public spending on education, as a share of total GDP http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/...


3

There's no magic. What you have to realize is that the result is conditional on the validity of the assumptions: A) Under the assumption that there is measurement error, then yes, the average of two measurements will be on average closer to the truth than a single opinion. This is very believable. We all do this kind of thing all the time. For example, when ...


3

A good reference is the Barro-Lee Dataset wich gives educational attainment for 146 countries from 1960 to 2010. The data are disaggregated by sex and by 5-year age intervals. Their estimates of educational attainment provide a reasonable proxy for the stock of human capital. An older reference is hosted by the World Bank. In case you need more recent data,...


3

Hemelt and Marcotte wrote a paper studying the effect of rising costs on enrollment, and as it turns out, students who choose to pursue degrees have very inelastic demand; people are still going to university and they will keep doing so, despite these tuition hikes. I think most students (myself included) have pretty imperfect information about the market, ...


3

In competition policy (part of microeconomics), market power is often defined as the ability of a firm to raise and maintain prices above the levels that would prevail under competitive conditions (with obvious adjustments if the market power is held by a buyer). Having market power does not necessarily mean it is used or abused, just that it can be See ...


2

kaggle.com actually has a dataset that fits what you are looking for. The data set is called "Education Statistics". From the preview of the data, it seems like you cant do much with it, however you can rank countries by educational achievement and enrollment as done here here. hope this helps


2

You can use the PISA study from OECD. It evaluates the skills and knowledge in reading, mathematics and sciene of 15-year-old students. PISA does not combine these results, but commentators do so sometimes. The most recent results are from 2012, you can find an overview of the rankings here. These rankings are composited from various tabels you can ...


2

Instruments are used as a replacement for an independent variable if we think that independent variable is endogenous. That means, we think it may be correlated with our error term. So in the case of estimating money made by a twin, we have a model: $$\text{salary} = \beta_0 + \beta_1 \cdot \text{guess} + u$$ Where $u$ has standard properties mean zero and ...


2

The key theoretical work, at least in the area of education, comes from Milton Friedman and his "Theory of School Choice". Important references are: Friedman, M. (1962), The Role of Government in Education. In Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Friedman, M. and Friedman, R. (1980). Free to choose. New York: Harcourt Brace ...


2

To understand why some countries are rich and others are not, we need to understand what happened to each of them in the past. How and why they developed depends to a large extent on events that took place decades or even centuries ago. This is what economists broadly refer to as path dependence. Brian Arthur was probably one of the first economists to point ...


2

An overview of vouchers that is a bit outdated but a good place to start building an understanding of past work: http://www.nber.org/papers/w7092 On school vouchers: https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/aer.97.3.789 http://faculty.smu.edu/millimet/classes/eco7321/papers/rouse.pdf https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/aer.96.3.847 https://...


2

I think this new paper might be of interest to you. The authors estimate the earnings advantage of workers that speak a second language, differentiating between native-born and foreign-born speakers. They evaluate this for 15 European countries, between 1994 and 2001. Their results are: First, for native-born workers with a tertiary diploma, using a ...


2

My work focuses on the Economics of Education, although from a more micro perspective. I can honestly say it's a complicated question and there are many people working on optimal education spending. First, a bit of simple math. Let $EdExp$ be education expenditure, $GDP$ be Gross Domestic Product, $E_{students}$ be enrolled students, $S_{pop}$ be school-...


2

It somewhat depends what you mean by that. The process is more complicated with migrants to cities also acquiring skills/education there, e.g. Another important piece of work related to education-based motivation is Lucas (2004), who constructs a two-sector model where the urban sector pays a higher wage due to its high-skilled jobs which are not ...


1

I don't buy the explanation of this being vagaries of advertisements, regardless of the job. Instead, I see it as employers showing rational and predictable flexibility in response to a changing supply of labour. At times of plentiful supply, they can reduce recruitment costs by being far more selective at the first stage - filtering by essential ...


1

I found one survey which corresponds to what I was looking for: Theories of Statistical Discrimination and Affirmative Action: A Survey by Hamming Fang and Andrea Moro, in the Handbook of Social Economics (2011 edition).


1

Model (1) is a regular linear probability model. Your results say that $x_1$ is significantly correlated with $y$. Model (2) is strange. It means that the probability is quadratic in $x_1$ and the turning point is exactly $x_1=0$. You will have difficulty justifying the restriction. The coefficients in Model (3) being insignificant may be a symptom of ...


1

NBER has a book with papers on the matter, Hoxby, C. M.(ed) (2003). The economics of school choice . Contents: I also quote here the paragraph-titles in the Introduction (by Hoxby) Market Structure Makes the Difference. It Helps to Call a Spade a Spade. One Cannot Avoid the Interdependence of School Choice and School Finance, so One Might as Well Enjoy ...


1

I came here to answer this question again because I feel like I omitted important points. Schools don't present your typical production function. They're multi-product firms with several inputs with varying degrees of substitutability and complementarity. Different outputs (such as human capital, student health and socio-emotional skills) aren't necessarily ...


1

Epple and Romano (AER 1998) developed an interesting general equilibrium model with peer effects. It clearly diagnoses school's pricing strategies. The model predicts that competition will lead private schools to give tuition discounts to more able students, and that this will give rise to an equilibrium exhibiting stratification by income and ability ...


1

In economics, I have not seen an evaluation of particular skill like the one you mention. However, there is a large literature evaluating the effect of cognitive and non-cognitive (or socio-emotional, as others call it) skills on wages. This is not as fine as you are asking for, but it is clearly a way forward from established approaches like "years of ...


1

I found research on this topic from the recent October 2016 issue of the American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. However I could not find the PDF online from the site however I got it from a different source. Titled as The Impact of High School Financial Education: Evidence from a Large-Scale Evaluation in Brazil it is learned that its possible to ...


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