3

The main four sources of EU revenue are: Custom duties and levies - EU calls this its 'Traditional own resources'. These are however not collected directly but member states collect it on the EU's behalf and are allowed to retain (currently) $20\%$ cut from these. These duties are ultimately, at least partially, payed by the EU citizens either directly or ...


3

It's probably referring to the standard OCA theory of the tradeoff between symmetry and flexibility, but in the latter flexibility is usually one index: The theory of optimal currency areas (OCA) has created a set of ideas that has an significant influence on the governance of the eurozone and on views about how this governance should be strengthened in the ...


2

Issuing bond is indeed the competence of the individual states. For example, you can buy 10 year bonds both from Italy and Germany, both of which are Eurozone countries: https://www.investing.com/rates-bonds/de-10y-vs-it-10y


2

It somewhat depends what you mean by that. The process is more complicated with migrants to cities also acquiring skills/education there, e.g. Another important piece of work related to education-based motivation is Lucas (2004), who constructs a two-sector model where the urban sector pays a higher wage due to its high-skilled jobs which are not ...


1

Get a copy of De Grauwe's "Economics of Monetary Union". The most recent version (13th edition) is quite recent, from this year. So if there is a "famous" recent paper, it is discussed in there. The book is certainly more guided than searching for recent papers that cite Robert Mundell.


1

No, the UK does not have a trade agreement with Australia. Since it is still a member of both the European Union's Single Market and Customs Union (EU SM&CU), it is covered by all of the EU's trade deals. However, the full EU-Australia trade deal is, at the time of writing, still being negotiated. Should the UK decide to go ahead and become the first ...


1

I believe this is generally true in the US, and I'll offer at a few reasons that are sometimes suggested here. Women are more likely to go to college than men, and colleges tend to be located in higher productivity areas. Women are more likely to live and work in cities (a majority in 81 of the 100 largest cities but a majority in only 58 percent of small ...


1

This seems relevant: China and the Dutch Economy I have only a limited experience in this, but here are some approaches you could look at. Re-export data UN Comtrade has re-exports data (products that the Netherlands import and export in the same form to other countries). Using this, you could make an assumption that x% of goods imported from China are re-...


1

Yes, this was written about at some length in Progress and Poverty by the American economist Henry George in the late 1800s.


1

Brexit economic forecasts usually assume that Brexit will happen and nothing more than Brexit. In other words forecasters will not assume other changes which may be pro-growth. For example they will not likely assume the "Singapore on the Thames" outcome because we do not know if it is politically feasible or realistic. All else equal, countries tend to ...


1

Maybe someone can get into more details, but generally speaking The range of estimates is large, from a loss of GDP of nearly ten percentage points (in the least attractive trade and inward investment scenarios modelled by the Treasury, NIESR and the Centre for Economic Performance at LSE) 1 to a gain of four points (Minford, for Economists for ...


1

The EU passporting system for banks and financial services companies enables firms that are authorised in any EU or EEA state to trade freely in any other with minimal additional authorisation. These passports are the foundation of the EU single market for financial services.


1

Because the US has threatened to sanction European companies that trade with Iran. Most European companies that are interested in trading in Iran also trade with the US, so would be vulnerable to various kinds of sanctions.


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