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You can find data for total government debt from world bank here. Debt to GDP is actually completely unaffected by exchange rates, inflation or other similar nominal factors which is the reason why economists actually prefer debt to GDP. For example, in terms of USD debt to GDP is $\frac{\\\$ \text{debt}}{\\\$ \text{GDP}}$, since the \$ is both in numerator ...


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No the identity would be preserved, since $I_2=S_2$ when inventory is reduced by $\Delta I_2$ =-\$2 at the same time the second person dissaves $\\\$2$, so $\Delta S_2$ = -\$2 as well. If then that person saves 2 dollars that they got from their customers then that will become some sort of investment (depending on how it is saved) so then we have $ \Delta ...


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Annualized growth rate does not mean the same as annual growth rate. An annual growth rate looks at YoY. A quarterly growth rate looks at QoQ. The annualized growth rate takes the quarterly growth rate and raises it to the fourth power. Essentially, the annualized figure is saying "if the economy maintains the same current quarterly growth for the ...


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I have to highlight a flaw in the premise of your question. For the quarterly NIPA statistics published and reported by the Bureau of Economic Statistics (bea.gov) under the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, the real growth rate shown in Table 1.1.1 in an annualized statistic based on the estimate of the QoQ level change in the real/constant-dollar value of the ...


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It is generally true that indicators constructed that way (higher frequency on top) can and do jump when GDP (or another lower frequency denominator) is released. This can be an issue in some use cases, so these indicators are not perfect, but in they are still useful in many cases. A few points: The more volatile the numerator is relative to the ...


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