10

The Business Dynamics Statistics (BDS) of the Census provides annual measures of business dynamics (such as job creation and destruction, establishment births and deaths, and firm startups and shutdowns) for the economy and aggregated by establishment and firm characteristics. The use of the LBD as its source data permits tracking establishments and firms ...


5

This article is from 2002, but it does a pretty good job of summarizing the pros and cons and has a section on normative decisions. Here is the abstract: In this paper, we review the economic effects of intellectual property rights and specifically address the economics of the patent system. The production and dissemination of new knowledge is fraught ...


5

I think the best candidate would be monopolistic competition as introduced by Dixit and Stiglitz (1977) Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity, in which two models are introduced. One central theme was product variety and the endogenous determination of the number of product varieties. There are many models formulated within the ...


3

There is a nice review from Petra Moser (NYU) on Patents and Innovation: Evidence from Economic History in the Journal of Economic Perspectives (2013). There is another paper on The Choice between Formal and Informal Intellectual Property: A Review, in the Journal of Economic Literature (2014), where the role of innovation is central.


3

The cuisine and fashion industries both largely exist without intellectual property protection other than trademarks (n.b., they can use copyright on certain aspects of their work but this is generally thought to give little protection) yet they seem to flourish. How is this possible? In fashion, it is thought that copying the work of other designers can be ...


2

My understanding of this chart is based on the Global Innovation Index 2015 report. Definitions are not explicit however. They compute an Innovation Efficiency Ratio as the ratio of the "Output Sub-Index" score over the "Input Sub-Index" score (definitions of these scores are presented in Figure 1). It is designed to assess the effectiveness of innovation ...


2

Perhaps someone with more expertise on the matter can answer your question more directly, but in the mean time: In the literature on innovation, it is fairly common to use patent data to measure the intensity of innovation activity. Here are Aghion et al (2005) on their approach: "There is a large literature on measuring innovation intensity, with the ...


2

Recently, Bronwyn Hall published an NBER working paper that seems to be exactly what you need. https://www.nber.org/papers/w27203


2

tl;dr: R&D spending cannot stimulate economy during just by increasing long-run aggregate supply because recessions are fluctuations around the long-run aggregate supply and not necessary affected by the long-run aggregate supply. A in which spending on R&D in principle could be more effective in fighting recessions than other spending. The ...


1

The previous +1 answer gives the correct economic mechanism but let me give you some case specific answer here. First of all there actually already is another drug that targets the same disease called Spinraza (see here) with cost of \$750,000 for the first year and then \$350,000 per year after that, so about \$4 million a decade. Assuming people with this ...


1

Not sure if this question is suitable for this site but here's some (unsubstantiated by data) information and some other interesting points relating to economics behind it. Rationale of the ban is not unfounded. It is based on a rather simple concept famously known as the Porter's Hypothesis. However, there is more economics at play (explained below). But ...


1

I'm not familiar with this area, so I can't tell you what are the seminal works, etc., but a quick search finds Gurley & Johnson (2017) "Viral economics: an epidemiological model of knowledge diffusion in economics": We model the diffusion of economic knowledge using an epidemiological model of susceptible, exposed, infected/inspired, and recovered ...


1

Currently, the problem lies in the genetic selection to make insects suitable for mass processing. Let's compare this to chicken farming Human society already select chicken that will grow lots of meat for many years There are machinery available to "process" the chicken There are existing demands and supply chain. Currently chicken is cheap In ...


1

Opinion If the leak is close to a release date, I would say most of these are made on purpose, to feed expectations, leading to greater attention and publicity (and sales). I don't see how this can be negative for the company. In technological firms, most of the features are patent-protected so they cannot be copied anyway. However, if the leak were to ...


1

The extra benefit to you, beyond what you pay for your iPhone and for your Netflix subscription, is called consumer surplus and in theory this could be aggregated across all consumers who take advantage of this innovation It is difficult to measure: again in theory it could be done by judging how much more individuals would be willing to pay until they ...


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