5

I think the best candidate would be monopolistic competition as introduced by Dixit and Stiglitz (1977) Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity, in which two models are introduced. One central theme was product variety and the endogenous determination of the number of product varieties. There are many models formulated within the ...


3

There is a nice review from Petra Moser (NYU) on Patents and Innovation: Evidence from Economic History in the Journal of Economic Perspectives (2013). There is another paper on The Choice between Formal and Informal Intellectual Property: A Review, in the Journal of Economic Literature (2014), where the role of innovation is central.


2

tl;dr: R&D spending cannot stimulate economy during just by increasing long-run aggregate supply because recessions are fluctuations around the long-run aggregate supply and not necessary affected by the long-run aggregate supply. A in which spending on R&D in principle could be more effective in fighting recessions than other spending. The ...


2

Recently, Bronwyn Hall published an NBER working paper that seems to be exactly what you need. https://www.nber.org/papers/w27203


1

The previous +1 answer gives the correct economic mechanism but let me give you some case specific answer here. First of all there actually already is another drug that targets the same disease called Spinraza (see here) with cost of \$750,000 for the first year and then \$350,000 per year after that, so about \$4 million a decade. Assuming people with this ...


1

Not sure if this question is suitable for this site but here's some (unsubstantiated by data) information and some other interesting points relating to economics behind it. Rationale of the ban is not unfounded. It is based on a rather simple concept famously known as the Porter's Hypothesis. However, there is more economics at play (explained below). But ...


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