25

I think you misunderstand what "electronic money" is - moving electronic money around isn't simply a matter of sending the right "codes" - it is ultimately about asking the central bank of that currency to move money around. Sure you can open up excel and write in it "I have \$100" but that isn't USD, much as writing \$100 on a piece of paper doesn't make ...


13

To measure the costs of different people speaking different languages, researchers use a "linguistic distance" metric, see for example this paper. However, measuring the cost of linguistic diversity appears to be challenging. Some effects are shown along the following lines. Impact of linguistic distance on international trade In this paper, they construct ...


11

The classic answer here would be Libya and Brunei, but I think Libya now has debt. Brunei is a strange case in that it uses a joint currency with Singapore dollar, controlled by the monetary authority of Singapore, so in effect you can use Singapore debt as a substitute for Brunei dollar investment. Not having any debt, and having a free currency is ...


10

"Foreign Direct Investment" is to be understood as bringing in an economy productive capital, and not just purchasing power. When an economy is seriously below full employment (of capital and labor), then a case can be made that "printing money" (i.e. creating purchasing power out of thin air) may not result in just inflation, but it may ...


9

What do you mean? A country per se cannot be bought. The wealthiest man, Gates, has a net worth of around 67 billion USD (forbes). What could he buy? GDP Whatever it the country produces. The poorest country by GDP per capita is Burundi, with a total GDP per capita of around 267 USD, and a population of 10 million. That gives then a total GDP per year of 2....


8

Countries do not just stop recognizing foreign wealth because there are two kinds of wealth: real assets, and claims on the production of others; the values of both of these types of wealth are not determined by consensus, but rather by the use or pleasure one can derive from them. To the first type— real assets are stuff like machines and cars and homes ...


8

It depends on what you mean by "sustained growth" and "flourishing markets". Clearly the Earth as a whole is a big market. If you do not look at human made borders: the global economy is currently growing and some would say it is flourishing. There is no physical reason why this could not be done without the borders. There are areas where the current ...


8

The Nobel Prize website is a good source of information. On the economics prize page they have a link to a page for each laureate. From there you can find, in particular, a biography for each prize winner where the laureates often talk about the genesis of their interest in economics. For example, Eric Maskin writes I became a math major at Harvard College, ...


8

When you control for not just year fixed effects but instead year-region or year-industry it adds flexibility. The year fixed effects controls in a flexible manner for the time-trend and is more flexible - less restrictive - than for example assuming that the time trend is for example linear $a \cdot t$, second order polynomial $at + bt^2$, exponential $exp(...


8

Your first quote seems to be given as an explanation of how they constructed Figure 1 (however I cannot be sure since you did not state pagenumber for the quote). Anyway, Figure 1 compares a treatment group with a control group on outcome variable. The descriptive content of these figures are not rigorously related to the main estimation equation $$(1) \ \ ...


6

Why do so many people die in hospitals? Aren't doctors there supoosed to save lives? The IMF is the trauma surgeon of government finances. When a country asks the IMF for help, it is because its finances are in very bad shape. They no longer have enough money to pay for public services, infrastructure, pensions, salaries. Without some kind of external help, ...


6

Maybe Lives of the Laureates? Lives of the Laureates offers readers an informal history of modern economic thought as told through autobiographical essays by twenty-three winners of the Nobel Prize in Economics. The essays not only provide unique insights into major economic ideas of our time but also shed light on the processes of intellectual discovery ...


6

The Russian default was an extraordinarily insignificant event compared with a current-day US default on all treasury securities. There are no remotely similar events to compare it to. This makes it hard to make guesses about all the ramifications. Still, speculating is fun. My guesses, based on a complete default (no money recovered) on all treasury ...


6

To maintain the currency peg, the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA) has to buy HKD and sell USD when the currency comes under depreciation pressure and sell HKD and buy USD when the currency comes under appreciation pressure. Depreciation pressure: The HKMA operates a currency board, which means that more than 100% of outstanding HKD is backed by USD ...


5

An interest rate is the return that a lender earns on money lent to someone else. If the interest rate is higher then it makes lending money more attractive because the return is higher. In particular, if the interest rate in, say, Russia increases relative to that in the USA then American lenders will switch from lending their money in America to lending ...


5

As Jason Nichols says, these terms are often used interchangeably. The general theme is that pretty much anything can be called a "peg" (except perhaps the case where two countries are literally using the same currency), while "fixed" tends to refer to institutional arrangements that are more automatic, where changes in the exchange rate are perceived to ...


5

The recent development of many "developing countries" and "emerging markets" does not mean that Western colonial powers did not exploit them in the past. Emerging economies owe their modern GDP growth to cheap labor, as (former) Western colonial powers switched their (expensive) manufacturing bases to countries like China, India, etc. In the past, they were ...


5

The omitted variable bias in gravity model is an important issue given that some factors are unobserved or difficult to quantity. To solve this issue trade economists tend to rely on various fixed effect estimators. But, the question is what is your variable of interest? Exporter-by-year and importer-by-year fixed effects For instance, if you are ...


5

Short answer Airbus is a particular case of decentralised supply chain which came from historical and political reasons. Airbus is a consortium with several European states having a stake on it, which means that each state wants a part of the production in their country. Long answer: Why is Airbus' supply chain disperse The aviation industry for commercial ...


4

When you go to spend the proceeds of the bank loan you do one of three things: Transfer money to another account at the same bank Withdraw cash Transfer the money another institution We'll ignore case 1 because eventually someone you transfer money to will want access to two or three, so we can just consider those eventualities directly. If you go to ...


4

The intuition for this result is pretty straightforward, and I think one can think about it in terms of saddlepoint stability in a phase diagram, although you don't need any serious technical apparatus - it's all conceptual. Krugman and Obstfeld posit a model in which government expenditure does not affect the "full employment" level of output $Y^f$ (to ...


4

The solution concept used in Ricardo's modell is the competitive equilibrium. Let the set of countries $N$ be defined as $N = \left\{E,P\right\}.$ (England, Portugal) Then the competitive equilibrium is a vector $$ \left(p,\left(q_{x,i},q_{y,i}\right)_{i\in N},\left(c_{x,i},c_{y,i}\right)_{i\in N}\right), $$ where $p$ is the equilibrium price ratio of the ...


4

To complement @rocinante answer the argument described in the question silently assumes that growth can happen only if you steal from somebody. So if the past colonies cannot steal from anybody, they are bound not to ameliorate their material welfare. Assume two persons, $A$ and $B$, that currently have the same unexploited resources. It so happens that in ...


4

It appears to suggest applying the way shareholders vote in a company to the political setting of democracy: each citizen will have as many votes as his/her monetized wealth. So the rich will have officially "more say" in what gets decided or who gets elected in public office. Certainly, the general consensus is that economic power does play a role in ...


4

The main reasons for decentralization in aviation industry would be lower costs, but also (if not most importantly): supportive public policies (e.g. local tax incentives, provision of low-interest or no-interest loans, other production subsidies), technology and specialization, industrial agreements, such as offset (in order to sell Boeing 747s to Air ...


4

Just because a country has a lot of resources (including human capital), it does not necessarily form a path for a developed nation. China is also very involved in military conflicts. It just takes one war for a country to drift back decades. Also, you can't ignore the brain drain problem. With that, "developed" nation is a fluid definition. What does that ...


4

You have most of the explanation here - the only missing piece is that as the de facto reserve currency of the world, almost all global trade is conducted in US dollars. Typically what happens is that a buyer will convert local currency to \$USD, the \$USD will be exchanged in the transaction, and then the seller will convert that \$USD to their local ...


3

There is no mistake. The solution: it is assumed that there is only one price at the domestic wheat market. Hence domestic producers will not sell at price $P_w$ and price $P_{Quota}$ as well. This makes sense: Suppose you are a domestic producer and you are aware that the price that results from the quota system is $P_{Quota}$. Knowing this you would not ...


3

As was said above, buying debt to affect the exchange rate and make Chinese exports more attractive may be one reason to buy these Treasuries. Surely all of these are not reinvested into buying more debt and some of it is put into other civic projects. The other reason to buy debt is to have a string of payments over time that may become more valuable later ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible