# Tag Info

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It's not clear what level of answer you're looking for, so here is a much more basic answer. There are indeed many exchanges with many different prices. However, if you have noticed that you could make money by exchanging your BTC for USD, exchanging the USD for SEK, and then exchanging the SEK for slightly more BTC than you started with - then someone else ...

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When we import something, we consume it. So when calculating consumption we are bound to count import as a positive component of GDP. Since it is not (we did not produce imports domestically), we subtract it to make it neutral.

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Free trade is, on the whole, one of the few otherwise controversial policy topics on which economists have near-perfect consensus. Historically, this consensus has long been strong in the English tradition (Hume, Smith, Ricardo, Mill), albeit less strong elsewhere. Famously, 1028 American economists signed an unsuccessful petition in 1930 begging Herbert ...

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To measure the costs of different people speaking different languages, researchers use a "linguistic distance" metric, see for example this paper. However, measuring the cost of linguistic diversity appears to be challenging. Some effects are shown along the following lines. Impact of linguistic distance on international trade In this paper, they construct ...

12

Typically, a devaluation is achieved by selling the domestic currency in the foreign exchange market and buying other currencies. Suppose China sells one trillion Renminbi and buys 157 billion US dollars. From the point of view of the market, it is as if the supply of Renminbi just increased. As in any competitive market, an increase in supply will cause the ...

11

The classic answer here would be Libya and Brunei, but I think Libya now has debt. Brunei is a strange case in that it uses a joint currency with Singapore dollar, controlled by the monetary authority of Singapore, so in effect you can use Singapore debt as a substitute for Brunei dollar investment. Not having any debt, and having a free currency is ...

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Some major benefits include: Seigniorage on currency acts as a source of government revenue, allowing for lower taxes and higher spending. One paper (Neumann (1992)) puts this at about \$15 billion a year. Lower borrowing costs on public and private debts due to greater demand for financial assets denominated in the currency, particularly credit risk-free ... 8 It depends on what you mean by "sustained growth" and "flourishing markets". Clearly the Earth as a whole is a big market. If you do not look at human made borders: the global economy is currently growing and some would say it is flourishing. There is no physical reason why this could not be done without the borders. There are areas where the current ... 8 Economic analysis always requires making some assumptions at some point. The assumptions that you make should try to fit reality the best that they can. Regarding your specific situation, there is a term in economics that might be helpful in describing what's going on: "Market Segmentation." This is a topic that is often studied in the asset ... 7 The HO model has been generalised. Vanek does a good job of it. Instead of only two countries, there is an index of countries. There are many industries. Identical technology Identical, homothetic tastes. The HOV theorem states that if a country is abundant in a factor, its factor content of trade in that factor should be positive, and negative otherwise.... 7 One way to navigate rather safely in National Accounting Identities, is to put on the one side "what you have available" and on the other side "what you do with it". In the specific case ($M$being imports) we would have $$GDP + M = C + I + G + X$$ "What we have available" is what we produce and what we import. "What we do with it" is a) consume it b) ... 7 One of the most common critiques is that the standard model is a static analysis. While a country might be better off today by focusing on its comparative advantage, its longer term prospects depend on the future of that industry, particularly on how quickly productivity can be improved. For instance, in David Ricardo's original example, comparative ... 7 I can get to more technical papers, but it's not a big secret what you have quoted. E.g. The Economist quotes MIT professor John Van Reenen: But just because the size of the pie expands [due to free trade], it doesn’t mean that everyone is better off. There are going to be some losers whose slice of the pie is so much smaller that they would have been ... 7 This is a long comment that is too long for the comment box. In fact, many research projects in US are secretive, especially the ones related to military. At the same time, much, much more research projects in China are secretive, including some agricultural ones, which are not military-related but considered as national security-related by Chinese ... 6 India has significantly worse physical/logistics infrastructure than China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, so it is difficult to produce goods in India because it's difficult to move supplies and product around the country. This, coupled with the comparatively higher complexity of dealing with government bureaucracy, makes it challenging to manufacture products ... 6 The underlying reason for persistent wage differences is probably that Mexican workers are less productive than American workers. It is sufficient that workers in some tradeable sectors are more productive to have persistent wage differences in all sectors. (a good explanation of this effect can be found here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balassa%E2%80%... 6 First we need to discuss what wealth is. Is it just the amassment of valubles? In the 16th-18th century, rulers thought so. This notion is called mercantilism. This idea was rejected by Adam Smith in book IV of The Wealth of Nations. The current meaning of wealth is not the amount you own, but rather how much you can consume (sustainably). Formally, the ... 5 Max Roser (2014) – ‘International Trade’. Our World in Data provides data on overall international trade growth during the requested time period, citing as their sources: International Historical Statistics (by Brian Mitchell) Correlates of War Bilateral Trade (as mentioned in the comments) The Maddison Project (which I love) The Rise and Fall of World ... 5 It's complicated, and it is supposed to depend on where the ships are generally operating from, rather than the country of the firm that owns the ships or the flag under which they are flown. Under the 2008 System of National Accounts (the international standard for calculating GDP), overseas shipping is generally to be allocated on the basis of the ports ... 5 The solution concept used in Ricardo's modell is the competitive equilibrium. Let the set of countries$N$be defined as$N = \left\{E,P\right\}.$(England, Portugal) Then the competitive equilibrium is a vector $$\left(p,\left(q_{x,i},q_{y,i}\right)_{i\in N},\left(c_{x,i},c_{y,i}\right)_{i\in N}\right),$$ where$p\$ is the equilibrium price ratio of the ...

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My understanding is that the gravity equation can be derived from different settings. You can assume that each country 1/ produces only one product. This is knwon as the "Armington assumption" as in Armington (1969) and allows a simple derivation of the gravity equation as in Anderson and Van Wincoop (2003). 2/ is specialized in different products (or ...

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There isn't a typical answer. The vendor may want paying in whatever currency represents the highest proportion of their costs, as this reduces their currency risk. But there may also be restrictions on what currency they can trade in; how much of some particular currency they're allowed to hold; there may be capital controls in place; some currencies ...

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The omitted variable bias in gravity model is an important issue given that some factors are unobserved or difficult to quantity. To solve this issue trade economists tend to rely on various fixed effect estimators. But, the question is what is your variable of interest? Exporter-by-year and importer-by-year fixed effects For instance, if you are ...

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tl;dr: Uncertainty & trade tariffs detail The economics have been assessed by a large number of economic specialists, including the very well-respected and independent Institute for Fiscal Studies. What would Brexit (meaning the UK leaving the EU) mean? uncertainty Well, firstly it means years of uncertainty, while replacement trading arrangements are ...

5

It's fine to make a supposition that it costs Colombia twice as much to make cars as coffee, and Japan twice as much to make coffee as cars. It's also fine to express these ratios in terms of the respective local currencies. The apparent problem you describe only arises because you go beyond the above and express the costs in terms of a common currency ...

5

World Trade Organization (WTO) rules prohibit export subsidies and China joined the WTO almost 15 years ago (in December 2001). As a condition of membership, China had to eliminate export subsidies in the late 90s. So, strictly speaking, China can't subsidize its exports. However, Dani Rodrik considers that China subsidizes them indirectly through the ...

5

There are many plausible scenarios in which the dollar ceases to be the de-facto currency. They all have a few things in common. For people to stop using dollars for international trade, there would need to be two circumstances: A reduction in trust in the USD (not just in US politicians) A good (better than the USD) alternative currency While political ...

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It depends on how you define "growth". Trade models have multiple goods in them, so there's no unique way to define "growth" - you are just moving along a fixed production possibility frontier. You can calculate nominal GDP, but then you have to come up with a measure of inflation so that you can deflate the nominal figure into something real. One of the ...

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Four-fifths of Algeria is just desert --which leaves no room for agriculture. The Algerian economy is mostly powered just by the oil industry, which contribute about ~70% of government revenues. Oil and oil related products constitute more than 80% of Algeria's exports. For example, Turkey has twice the population of Algeria but it has more than 7.5 times ...

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To complement WorldGov's great points, there are milk subsidies provided in Algeria, which might have been abused for re-sale in other countries: [These measures of “market saturation” will be accompanied by] “the firm application of the law against all the authors of diversion of milk powder heavily subsidised by the state for the benefit of consumers.” ...

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