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You should check the German wikipage on Instex (use a translator to read them). Here is the short translation on the purpose of Instex. Instex was initiated in January 2019 as a special purpose vehicle designed to facilitate the settlement of transactions in Iran without penalties imposed on private banks by the use of US currency. The special ...

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I have to disagree with the previous answer. There is quite a large literature on international trade and the effect of environmental regulations. To start off there is the whole race to the bottom literature and the environmental Kuznet's curve. A good start of trade versus the environment is given in Esty's 2001 Bridging the Trade-Environment Divide (found ...

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Generally trade occurs in scammy goods like cash crops, iPhones, luxury cars and other high end items that have little material cost. Their environmental footprint would be minimal. That's why there are few papers. Oil trade is fairly significant. However it's becoming less so and the majority of countries obtain their oil within a thousand miles. Even ...

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As we have discussed in the comments, the utility function used in the book is Cobb-Douglas: $U = CM^{\mu}A^{1 - \mu}$. The well known fact mentioned in equation (3.3) on page 57 - the one that you highlighted - is that the Cobb-Douglas utility function is homothetic - the share of total income spent on any of the goods is constant over all possible incomes. ...

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