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As you say the first step is to take log of both sides after that you are just applying the rules for logarithms and rearrange. For example: $$\ln (XZ)=\ln X + \ln Z$$ $$\ln X/Z= \ln X - \ln Z$$ $$\ln X^a = a \ln X$$ $$\ln 1 = 0$$ Also an important approximations that hold close to zero are applied here as well these are: $\ln(1+x) \approx x $ for $x$ ...


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