Questions tagged [microeconomics]

Microeconomics is a branch of economics that studies the market behavior of individual actors (usually firms and consumers) and the aggregation of their actions in different institutional frameworks (usually the market).

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10 views

Given an MRS how to be better off

Let's assume we have 2 agent A and B. A has n good x and m good y and B has a good x and 2a good y. If we know their MRS's at their current bundles how can we offer them a trade that makes both of ...
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K in the Cobb Douglas function

I'm using the Cobb Douglas production function for a Mathematics investigation into how optimisation works in Economics. The assumption is that the firm require's only one type of capital, that is, a ...
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Questions about merger simulation with logit demand

I'm trying to learn how to do merger simulation with logit demand. I think I get the concept of it and most of the math, but I'm struggling to put everything together and see how you would actually ...
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What are Frisch Demands useful for?

Frisch demands are demand equations found usually in an intermediate step of the standard utility maximization problem. By example for the basic two-good case of a consumer with quasilinear ...
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Is there a reproducibility crisis in Economics?

I am an undergraduate economics student, and came across this paper by John Ionnadis on 'The Power of Bias in Economics Research'. the findings are quite bleak. https://academic.oup.com/ej/article/...
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What is the time period I should assume for factor prices in the cost function? [closed]

I have a quick and rather urgent question. Using the method of Lagrangian multipliers I got my cost function for my Cobb Douglas function of the form AQ^(1/b) where b>1, and A was an extremely large ...
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Fixed vs Flat Tax Rate Question

Sam consumes, among other things, telephone services. He pays a fixed tax t on every phone call he makes (in addition to the regular price), and ends up paying 100 dollars every year in telephone ...
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11 views

Optimal tax level that raises revenue R < e given Hicksian demand elasticities

I have to find a uniform tax rate that raises revenue R < e and I am given a Hicksian cross price elasticity demand matrix below. I know I want to use Ramsey's first-best but I am not sure, how to ...
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Finding budget share given Hicksian demand elasticities

I'm not sure how to go about solving this. I tried thinking of this as a linear function where a share of marijuana = $-.4 -.106tobacco +.506alcohol$ and find a share of each good by doing a system of ...
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38 views

Why is discriminating monopoly better than competitive markets for producers?

In intermediate microeconomics by Hal Varian, It is said that discriminating monopoly is better than competitive markets for producers. Why so?
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Some basic questions on infromation asymmetry

How does asymmetric information and bid-ask spread are connected? For instance, economic theory tells us that, the more the problem of information asymmetry, the higher the spread is. What is the ...
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202 views

Axiom: More is Better; But when is more better?

I'm taking an introductory microeconomics course and have been introduced to the 3 axioms of economic preferences. These include Completeness Transitivity Non-satiation My understanding of non-...
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Are these two derivatives the same with regards to TR?

Given that Marginal Revenue is change in Total Revenue: TR = P*Q P = f(Q) TR = f(Q) * Q MR = dTR/ dQ Or ...
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1answer
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Cobb-Douglas function homotheticity

I've been given the Cobb-Douglas utility function: $\ u(q_1, q_2)=a\ln q_1+b\ln q_2=q_1^aq_2^b \ $ If I want to prove homothetic preferences, I use the following condition: $\ u(\lambda q_1, \...
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locally nonsatiated preferences

what does this symbol mean in the discuss of locally nonsatiated preferences: $\varepsilon > 0$ and $||y-x||<\varepsilon$.
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1answer
36 views

Check for concavity, quasi-concavity with given value of function

I am studying for an upcoming exam in microeconomics and I have always struggled with proving concavity, convexity in different exercizes. This one I can't solve for the life of me. It is kind of hard ...
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1answer
46 views

How to find the maximum profit in a graph?

We know the maximum profit will occur at the quantity where the gap of total revenue over total cost is largest. But how can we find such gap?
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What does “r” represent in the total cost function?

I know that the total cost function of a firm in the short run is: TC = wL + rK, where rK is essentially a constant. I understand the variables w, L and K, but I still don't get what r is. I mean, ...
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48 views

Derivation of a Demand Equation

A consumer's utility function is $U(x,y)=\sqrt x + y$. Assuming we have an interior solution, I need to show that the demand for $x$ does not depend on income. I know that the consumer consumes where ...
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How to find the profit-maximizing output level?

Table 11 In this post, step 5 states the profit-maximizing output level is quantity 5. But in this case, $p=28$, $MC=30$, $p\neq MC$. Why it is the profit-maximizing output level? Step 4 states the ...
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Microeconometrics course vs time series

I am currently a graduate student in Operations Research and I would like to learn econometrics, as it is not a part of the core curriculum. I am comfortable with matrix algebra (many courses used ...
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2answers
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Arrow’s impossibility theorem and voting schemes

Arrow’s impossibility theorem states that there is no procedure for aggregating individual preference orderings into a collective preference ordering that satisfies certain apparently desirable axioms....
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1answer
41 views

Simple General Equilibrium Model of Public Goods: Intuition?

We assume a two person economy, denoted by person A and B. Good y is an ordinary private good, and each person begins with an allocation of this good given by $ y^{A*} $ & $ y^{B*} $ respectively. ...
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Constant Elasticity of Substitution- profit maximization vs cost minimization

Consider the following production function: $$ Y=A\left[\alpha K^{\rho}+\left(1-\alpha\right)L^{\rho}\right]^{\frac{1}{\rho}} $$ In the above, $\rho$ is the substitution parameter, and $\sigma=\frac{1}...
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Pareto Set with strictly convex preferences

Suppose the agents A and B have the following utility functions $x_A y_A+12x_A+3y_A $ and $x_By_B +8x_B+9y_B$ respectively with endowments (8,30) and (10,10). The contract curve's equation turns out ...
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Differentiability vs Continuous Differentiability

Why do optimization textbooks, as well as appendices for MWG JehleReny etc. simply state conditions in terms of continuous differentiability, even when the weaker condition of differentiability is ...
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Minimizing consumption in a single market( Partial Equilibrium)

Let there be a good X where the optimal consumption is 0; i.e the social costs for any unit provided would always be greater than the utility surplus of the market. We know that prohibiting it( ...
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3answers
61 views

Can we compare risks of lotteries?

I understand the concepts of risk-aversion, risk neutrality and risk-attraction. I wonder if it possible to compare risks between two lotteries without giving the utility function. For instance, Let ...
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1answer
48 views

In the long run, would a production-possibility curve expand outward if the country preferred more consumer goods than capital goods?

PPC will not expand outward if the country preferred more consumer goods than capital goods. The total amount of resources in an economy at any given point of time is fixed. If a country ...
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1answer
50 views

Diminishing mariginal utility and risk preferences

Diminishing marginal utility is a concept only in cardinal utility theory rather than ordinal utility theory. As diminishing marginal utility implies a concave shape of the utility function, does it ...
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1answer
71 views

When to use a lagrange multiplier?

I have a question in regards to the use of Lagrange multipliers in macro models. I have seen that when writing a Lagrange there are two ways to write the Lagrange multiplier: 1) Indexed or 2) ...
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1answer
33 views

How to compute Walrasian equilibrium in the case of logarithmic utility?

If the utility is $U = \ln x + 2 \ln y$, how do you compute Walrasian equilibrium via usual formula for demand $x=a(x p_x + y p_y)/p_x(a+b)$ ? What is $a$ and $b$? In case of Cobb-Douglas function ...
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Notation? Inverse of demand function

I'm looking through The Investment Decisions of Firms by S.J. Nickell, and I've come across some notation that I don't quite understand. Any clarification would be very welcome. Nickell first assumes ...
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How would increase labor productivity lead to improved living standards of people in an economy?

I would like to know more about the mechanisms through which higher labor productivity would translate into higher living standards for a population in a given economy.
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Supply and Demand plotted on a three dimensional Cartesian coordinate system

Is it possible ? if it's possible can someone give me a reference ? Thanks !
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Refinements in signaling games with three sender types

What are the pros and cons of the Intuitive Criterion and the Criterion of Divinity in signaling games with three types? I find that separating equilibria often survive the intuitive criterion, ...
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29 views

Inforamtion asymmetry modeling

Is there any cook book, in finance, for models in information asymmetry, so as to make some practice?
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1answer
42 views

MWG Proposition 2.F.1

Is homogeneity of degree zero necessary in proposition 2.F.1? It seems like the proof does not assume homogeneity of degree zero to establish the proposition. If this is true, it seems that ...
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Mathematic notation of scale returns

I'm having trouble with returns to scale mathematical notation which i found counterintuitive even I'm fine with its definition. Any help will be very appreciated. There are three possible types of ...
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1answer
31 views

Fixed costs in the long run

Can anyone please help me understand how fixed costs in the long run are zero? In Microeconomics by J. M. Perloff, the author gives the example of a factory's rent and says that if we are talking ...
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On shapes of indifference curves

I encountered this question in Microeconomics by Pindyck and Rubinfeld. The question says that "Suppose Jones and Smith have each decided to allocate $1000 per year to an entertainment budget in the ...
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Contract curve and Pareto frontier

Consider an exchange economy with two agents. Each agent $i \in \{1,2\}$ derives utility $u^i(x_1,x_2) \in \mathbb R$ by consuming $(x_1,x_2) \in \mathbb R_+^2$. Let $u_j^i(x_1,x_2) = \partial u^i(...
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1answer
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Budget Constraint in Utility Maximisation Problem with Lagrange Multipliers

Lets say we have a utility function $U: \mathbb{R}^{2} \to \mathbb{R}$ given by $U(x,y)$ and a binding budget constraint $p_{x} x + p_{y} y = m$, where $p_{x}, p_{y}$ are prices of goods $x,y$ and $m$ ...
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In a production function, the technology can vary across the firms and times. But the “power” must be same for the same industry?

Let $F_t=A_tK_t^\alpha L_t^{1-\alpha}$ be the production function with two parameters. In regression, we know the firm level $F_t$, $K_t$, and $L_t$. We want to estimate $A_t$ and $\alpha$. I've ...
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For the case of two goods, give an example of preferences that are represnted by a continuous utility function that allows for fat indifference curves

The question in the title sounds like a trick question, due to the monotonicity property that indifference curves have, such that for two goods x and y, strong monotonicity implies y > x. Possible ...
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1answer
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In the Cournot Duopoly Model,why is the Equilibrium achieved at 1/3 Rd of the Market Share?

I've been reading it for a while,while I do get the action reaction movements,I can't understand as to how the 1/3rd value was reached. Can anyone intuitively or mathematically explain as to how it's ...
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Optimizing Lagrangian Function Subject to 4 Input/Output Constraints:

The objective function: $$\text{utility}=U\left(x_{c}, y_{c}\right)$$ subject to, $x_{o}=f\left(y_{i}\right)$ $y_{o}=g\left(x_{i}, x_{o}\right)$ $x_{c}+x_{i}=x_{o}+x^{*}$ $y_{c}+y_{i}=y_{o}+y^{*}$ ...
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Job search theory in discrete time

Let us assume that there is a labor who lives in discrete time universe and discounts future payoffs with the discount factor $b\in (0,1)$. And we assume that this labor is at period $t=0$ at first. ...
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1answer
45 views

Market impact function

I have the following Dynamical system for market impact function $$p_{t+1}-p_t=a(d_t-s_t)$$ $$s_{t+1}-s_t=bp_ts_t-cs_t$$ $$d_t=y-rp_t$$ where $s_t$ is quantity supplied, $d_t$ is quantity demanded, ...
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If the marginal cost is equal to 1, how does that imply marginal cost is equal to marginal benefit?

The function below is a utility function simplified after subject to an implied participation constraint. $$ E\left(\pi_{n}\right)=e^{*}-E\left(s^{*}\right)=e^{*}-c\left(e^{*}\right) $$ where $ \pi_n ...

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