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Perhaps it is "Country-level social cost of carbon" by Ricke et al. (2018)? Abstract: The social cost of carbon (SCC) is a commonly employed metric of the expected economic damages from carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although useful in an optimal policy context, a world-level approach obscures the heterogeneous geography of climate damage and ...


4

Regression discontinuity, IV, diff-in-diff, fixed effects, synthetic control, and MLE, and GMM are the major methods. Fixed Effects example - Zou (2021) Fixed Effects and IV example - Benzell and Cooke (2021) Diff-in-diff example - Gu, Jiang, Zhang, and Zou (2021) Regression discontinuity (fuzzy also) - Ost, Pan and Webber (2018) Regression Kink ...


3

I would suggest looking at some of the research by Francis Fukuyama. "Social Capital, Civil Society, and Development," Third World Quarterly 22 (no. 1, 2001). or https://fukuyama.stanford.edu/political-order-and-political-decay-industrial-revolution-globalization-democracy He has more of a global focus, but he does go into Europe at length. ...


2

I'm fairly sure that the paper I was thinking of was The social cost of carbon dioxide under climate-economy feedbacks and temperature variability, by Kikstra et. al. which has SCC02 values in the thousands of dollars. One thing I particularly remember is that the values were precise numbers such as $3372 rather than being rounded. I'm rather surprised that ...


2

Markowitz's 1952 paper did not have any distributional assumptions. You should read it. It is not rigorously constructed. It was more of a proto-idea at that state. He posited a mean and a variance but many distributions have both, some only have a mean, some have neither. The earliest paper would be by Mandelbrot in 1963 called "On the Variation of ...


1

This paper looks relevant: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0164070495801014 Abstract "This paper shows that the collapse of the paper money system of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) was not due to a runway printing press but due to the existence of competing metallic currencies, which increased the interest elasticity of paper money ...


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