A good starting point which should be accessible to people at all levels is the book "Guns, Germs, and Steel" by Jared Diamond.
I believe this is one of the first and main seminal works in this area.
That being said, it is not settled science that geography (alone) can doom a country's economy.
As mentioned by @BBKing, "Guns, Germs, and Steel" by Jared Diamond is a great book. Another interesting one is "Why Nations Fails" by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson.
They argue that geography is insufficient in explaining the political and economic success or failure of states. They support their thesis by comparing country case studies.
This is a very broad question and no one except the respondents in question know exactly what they believe and why.
However, I suspect one important result in this context is the Second Welfare Theorem.
In simple language and subject to some assumptions:
The First Welfare Theorem tells us that any competitive equilibrium leads to a Pareto efficient ...
Here are some good guides on this topic:
Bayesian Inference 2019 from Ville Hyvönen & Topias Tolonen. - this is good guide to Bayesian inference in general. They have separate chapter on hierarchical Bayes and all their explanations include worked out step by step examples in R.
Bayesian Data Analysis by Gelman, Carlin, Stern, Dunson, Vehtari, and ...
A main textbook in environmental economics is Perman et al.'s Natural resource and environmental economics (currently in it's 4th edition, published in 2011). Their definition of an externality is:
"An external effect, or externality, is said to occur when the
production or consumption decisions of one agent have an impact on the
utility or profit of ...