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This document, published by the International Organization of Securities Commissions, states three objectives and describes thirty-eight principles of securities regulation: https://www.iosco.org/library/pubdocs/pdf/IOSCOPD561.pdf Objectives Protect investors ensuring that markets are fair, efficient and transparent; reducing systemic risk. The ...


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A beta is, by definition, constant (at least, over the time period it's calculated). You could divide a time period into subperiods based on what direction the index is going, and calculate two different measures for each direction, but then what you're calculating isn't the beta in general, it's a beta for those subperiods.


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A reverse IPO is frequently called as a 'Reverse Takeover' or a 'Reverse Merger.' I believe if you try to comprehend 'Reverse IPO' in itself, you will not find anything convincing. But if you perceive it from the Reverse Takeover or Reverse Merger view, might appear more logical.


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As the answer says, the management fee is directly taken from the fund’s assets. The only way that anyone “pays” the fees is via lower returns. There is no cash flow to pay the fee.


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Efficient market hypothesis does not in itself predict that stock market returns will equalize among different stock markets so it should not really be part of the question (efficient market hypothesis only refers to informational efficiency of markets). Rather this is something that would be predicted by trade/international macro models that predict factor ...


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This article discusses ROI: https://www.investopedia.com/articles/basics/10/guide-to-calculating-roi.asp This article covers adjustments to stock price and volume data: https://blog.quandl.com/guide-to-stock-price-calculation Some observations about efforts to maximize ROI from stock investing: When one enters a market position, such as in the stock market, ...


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The statement is reasonably accurate. When we talk about the 'standard event study' in economics and financial literature (e.g. MacKinlay, 1997), which based on your text you are, they are not appropriate for analyzing single effects that affect whole market. There are several reasons for this: A key assumption of event study is cross-sectional ...


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Yes. Intangible assets are part of equity. Book value is sometimes used as a synonym for equity. Intangible assets are part of equity until it is reduced by amortization or impairment. One interesting example is software. Development costs might be capitalized as equity or it might be an expense so it never becomes capital. The decision depends upon ...


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The primary consideration in practice is that the initial investment is larger if you are long the stock, and thus consumes more balance sheet. The next consideration is that if you don’t hold to maturity, the implied volatility exposure is opposite (and the associated greeks) for the positions. After that, there are only voting rights, jurisdiction-...


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