Giskard
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You are correct in suspecting that this firm produces no added value, but this does not contradict your definitions. We sum up the cost of salaries and retained earnings of all firms in the economy [...

You can set the decision variables in Wolfram Alpha. E.g., maximize [{x*q-q^2+a} , {q}] maximizes the function $x*q-q^2+a$ w.r.t. the variable $q$. For further details read the reference sheet of ...

The joke is conflating the value of the item you get and the value of the option to determine which item you get. Suppose I value the Snickers at $\\\$.4$and the M&Ms at$\\\$.75$. If I am ...
You want to show $$\frac{dMR}{dQ} < 0.$$ As you point out in the comments $$\frac{dMR}{dQ}= Q\frac{d^2P(Q)}{dQ^2} + 2\frac{dP(Q)}{dQ}.$$ The linear case When $P(Q) = a - bQ$, assuming $a,b>... View answer 4 votes Can somebody explain why the companies do this [...]? Well people seem to buy it anyway so it makes them money. Can somebody explain [...] why people seem to buy it anyway? Well, you seem to have ... View answer 2 votes You can write the author to know for sure, without this one can only speculate. I don't think the solution is that there is a word for early that starts with a k. Rather people do not like to use$e$, ... View answer Accepted answer 3 votes A counterexample Suppose the preference relation$\preceq$is such that for all bundles$x,y$we have$x \sim y$. This relation satisfies transitivity and continuity (it satisfies all four "... View answer Accepted answer 2 votes You can make literally any set into an indifference curve of a "well-behaved" (complete, transitive, reflexive) preference relation. Let$H \subset \mathbb{R}^n$. Assume that the preference ... View answer 2 votes dividend (n.) early 15c. [...] from Latin dividendum "thing to be divided," neuter gerundive of dividere "to force apart; to distribute" Source: Online Etymology Dictionary Thus ... View answer 1 votes Perhaps this means that the demand curve is shifting to the left and hence lowering the competitive price (the price reached at market equilibrium). Yes. Indeed the "law" of demand holds ... View answer Accepted answer 1 votes You want to model the decision problem of firm$M$. In case they produce a total quantity of$q_M$, they can split this between factories$1$and$2$. Firm$M$can minimize the cost of producing$q_M$... View answer 3 votes You are not considering compound interest. From Wikipedia.: Compound interest is the addition of interest to the principal sum of a loan or deposit, or in other words, interest on interest. [...] ... View answer 2 votes From Wikipedia (emphasis of the simple example by me): In the panel data, fixed effects estimator dummies are created for each of the units in cross-sectional data (e.g. firms or countries) or ... View answer Accepted answer 2 votes The abstract of EVIDENCE FOR AND AGAINST THE VALIDITY OF EFFICIENT MARKET HYPOTHESIS by Milјan Leković: The concept of an efficient financial market, in literature known as efficient market ... View answer 5 votes Confirmation bias While there could be economic reasons for some of these phenomena, I think you are very likely experiencing confirmation bias. You are retelling personal stories that fit the ... View answer Accepted answer 4 votes Below is a graph of the price offer curve of good$y$when income is$48$units,$p_x = 8$and the utility function is $$U(x,y) = \min\left(2x+2y,x+10\right).$$ (Based on "Simple Utility ... View answer Accepted answer 4 votes I am not sure why you expect method two to work, as generally $$\frac{\partial F(K,N)}{\partial N} \neq \frac{\partial F(K,N)}{\partial K}\frac{\partial K}{\partial N}.$$ These are partial ... View answer 4 votes The standard definition of a strategy assigns an action to every decision node/information set. This definiton is at least a jack of all trades; it works well in most cases and sometimes leads to ... View answer Accepted answer 7 votes How is marginal utility interpreted as the additional "happiness" gained from consuming one more unit of some good? Not sure what you mean. Utility is not interpreted as some biological ... View answer Accepted answer 6 votes Yes, you are wrong. As the quoted part explains, In this case, economists say there has been an increase in “quantity supplied” but no change in “supply.” Supply refers to the position of the supply ... View answer Accepted answer 1 votes My hit from Google Scholar (had to go to the bottom of page 1 for this one!) is Macro-Economic Growth,Enterprise Competitive Status and Trade Credit Policy Abstract: This paper investigates the ... View answer Accepted answer 2 votes I typed "Operating Cycle" into Google Scholar, and got some hits like The Operating Cycle: Risk, Return and Opportunities by John C. Groth Abstract: Highlights the operating cycle, its ... View answer 2 votes From the first Google hit I got, The tools of macroeconomic policy—a short primer: Macroeconomic policy is concerned with the operation of the economy as a whole. In broad terms, the goal of ... View answer 2 votes In my very limited empirical experience it seemed that cost functions were in fact non-convex for most output levels in the few industries I looked at. Allocating costs to exact parts of a process is ... View answer 4 votes Note 1.: It is rude to edit a question after it was answered; I had to make significant edits to make my answer consistent. Note 2.: this is not a system of equations. There are two functions defined,... View answer Accepted answer 4 votes Nuance matters: In the comments under 1muflon1's answer the quote given is The demand curve represents marginal benefit. The vertical distance at each quantity shows the mount consumers are willing ... View answer Accepted answer 3 votes You have most of this; it seems like you might have a miscalculation when differentiating the fraction:$\begin{align*} \frac{dk_t}{dt} = \frac{d\frac{K_t}{N_t}}{dt} & = \frac{\frac{dK_t}{dt}N_t ... View answer 4 votes This is something you can figure out yourself. If you have not yet tried, I encourage you to do so. Draw any setH \in \mathbb{R}^n $. Select any point$x$of set. Is the set of all points$y$"... View answer Accepted answer 2 votes Prices in themselves don't mean much when you want to predict purchasing power. Imagine a loaf of bread costs 100 of country A's monetary units in country A, while it costs 2 of country B's monetary ... View answer 2 votes Seems like this class of games is very general. (Or I don't get the definition.) Note that$\theta$is not even used, it is just some parameter that has value$\theta_0\$ throughout. As long as there ...