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You can find data for total government debt from world bank here. Debt to GDP is actually completely unaffected by exchange rates, inflation or other similar nominal factors which is the reason why economists actually prefer debt to GDP. For example, in terms of USD debt to GDP is $\frac{\\\$ \text{debt}}{\\\$\text{GDP}}$, since the \\$ is both in numerator ...

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Michael Kalecki, Political Aspects of Full Employment, Political Quarterly, 1943 https://delong.typepad.com/kalecki43.pdf Footnote 2 (describes the use of a capital tax to cover interest payments on the expanding government debt when deficit spending is used to enact full employment policy): Another problem of a more technical nature is that of the national ...

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You are right that these questions have complicated answers, so i will put foward some simpler points that may help understand the situation: Your argument that the capital gains tax is a reallocation of wealth from private to public sector is not wrong, but your conclusion that "the amount of investment in the economy will not change because the ...

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That idea does not work empirically or theoretically. This is not to say that one cannot make some arguments for non-zero capital taxes but not via this channel. Empirically: Capital taxation is actually associated with higher government debt. This is not to say they cause each other rather they are both driven by discount factor of the government (e.g. see ...

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Because it make inflation expectations (and thus actual inflation) high, and does this in two ways: first of all because the newly created monetary base used to purchase government bonds is used by the government to purchase goods and services (a thing that drives up the aggregate demand and so increases the general price level, the thing we call "...

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There are two points here we need to consider Government needs to give collateral (Government securities) in order to get loan from central bank, central bank can't buy g-sec by printing currency as it wants, there will be some limit based on the economic conditions of that particular country, if it prints money without limit it will lead to INFLATION. ...

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