Questions tagged [debt]

An obligation to pay another party at some point in the future. Examples include national debt, corporate bonds, and household credit.

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21 views

Why might it make sense to buy bonds in a company facing restructuring?

In this video, Sal Khan states, "If you really thought that Lehman Brothers in the long term was going to come back, what you might want to do is somehow try to become one of its bondholders, and ...
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28 views

Biggest foreign owners of China debt?

It is already known that China and Japan are the biggest owners of US debt - about one trillion dollars each. But who are the biggest owners of China debt? I mean the foreign owners.
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Does China issue treasury bonds too?

The USA is issuing a lot of treasury bonds and investors are buying it. But does China issue such bonds too? If yes, then how many such bonds did they issued and who are the largest owners of those ...
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29 views

Why does the Loanable Funds Market model use the real interest rate instead of the nominal interest rate?

As far as I understand, the majority of loan contracts specify a nominal interest rate, NOT a real interest rate. So a hypothetical loanable funds markets would have people suggesting potential ...
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Why would non-investment grade debt be issued at the investment-grade debt market?

Newsweek quoted Bentley University Prof. David Gulley Ph.D., Univ of Kentucky-Lexington, 1990 M.A., University of Kentucky, 1989 B.A., Alma College, 1986 A \$10 Trillion Corporate Debt Bomb Is ...
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Why did Germany use hyperinflation to free itself from an external debt?

Im reading about how Germany used almost any solution To free itself from its WWI debt: hyperinflation, calculating payments on the basis of the economy's potential, rescheduling annuities and finally ...
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28 views

What are the uses of overnight loans?

As far as I understand an overnight loan is a loan that is settled the next day. Who are the entities that would find it useful to take a loan just for a day? and, what would they use an overnight ...
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42 views

Are government bonds internal or external debt?

I was watching this video and since it's a bit oversimplified I wanted more information. I was curious because internal debt is in the local currency from local lenders, while external debt is in a ...
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31 views

What does the Fed do with their profits?

As far as I understand the system the Fed prints money which it then uses to buy bonds. Bonds are basically statements of debt meaning that the Fed receives interest from the parties it has bought the ...
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30 views

Which is safer in the long-term, diffuse debt or concentrated debt?

I want to deepen my understanding of risks as posed by debt burdens among actors of an economy. After some literature review, it seems the matter is nuanced; points can be made for both sides. I'll ...
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30 views

Does the government ever pay back its debt from the OMO to the Fed? [closed]

I'm getting confused about how exactly does money being created by the Fed. From investopidia.com: ...
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230 views

How can people save in a equilibrium economy?

Two people on a desert island: John produces 100kg potatoes and sells them to Paul for \$100. Paul catches 100kg fish and sells it to John for \$100. GDP is \$200\$, right? Next year, they improve ...
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How can increasing debt boost potential returns?

May 26 2020. Why Even Carl Icahn Couldn't Save Hertz From Chapter 11 - Bloomberg Hertz’s debt binge began when it was acquired by private equity firms from Ford Motor Co. in 2005; the new owners ...
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How can a sovereign debt ratio be high, but debt-servicing ratio be low?

I'm quoting this May 22 2020 interview with NYU Stern Prof. Nouriel Roubini. In other words, you’re saying that because of structural weaknesses in the economy, even modest inflation would be crisis-...
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145 views

How can we get negative **real** interest rate?

According to Fisher's equation, Real interest rate=Nominal interest rate - expected inflation rate So, how can we get negative real interest rate? I'm in doubts. On one hand, purely from algebraic ...
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37 views

Is there unnecessary duplication for borrowing in this circular flow of income diagram?

Here is a circular flow of income that I took from Krugman's macroenomics textbook. We can see that when firms want to borrow they can go to the financial sector and borrow savings of national and ...
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22 views

How do the Government, Firms and the Foreign sector pay their debts in this circular flow of income?

Here is a circular flow of income that I took from Krugman's macroenomics textbook. Please notice, in this diagram households just give their savings to banks (which are part of the financial sector) ...
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33 views

What happens on a banks balance sheet when the borrower submits loan payments?

When the banks lends me money my demand deposits end up in his liabilities and my loan is on his assets. Lets say I paid that money to somebody who has an account at another bank. Lets ignore how the ...
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Do states compete with each other when they emit debt?

Let's say that, for some reason (a crisis or similar), many first-world countries' states need to emit public debt to be able to pay the services the normally provide (pensions, health etc.). As I ...
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What would happen if the U.S. “refinanced” its national debt?

Interest rates are at historical lows. I believe they went negative in parts of Europe recently. Since interest on the national debt is one of the biggest, if not the biggest, expense item of the U.S. ...
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How can government mitigate the long-term effects of current shut downs?

I’m not well versed in economics by any stretch of the imagination. But I am confused with certain measures taken thus far by the government. There is currently a temporary shutdown of vast sectors ...
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26 views

What happens if you cannot lend more than what you have?

This is hypothetical but what would happen if you cannot lend more money than you have? Say you have £100, the maximum you can lend is £100. But somehow you lend £200 to Joe, and Joe spends all of it ...
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130 views

Banks are allowed to print money out of thin air. Black magic or what? [duplicate]

Today it is wide spread notion that the commercial banks cat create a money out of thin air. Simply by typing numbers on computer. Every time a bank gives a load to a borrower, the loan money do not ...
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Stimulus (Rescue) Package [duplicate]

With regard to the recent 2 trillion dollar coronavirus package, is the money just being printed or borrowed? A gentleman from the tax payer union claims the taxpayer will eventually be on the hook.
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Shouldn't the total global debt amount to zero and not $253 trillion?

In Jan 2020, the Institute of International Finance (IIF) came out with a report (read summary here) that the total global debt is expected to climb to a new all-time high of more than $257 trillion ...
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How to reconcile fact that “real interest=nominal interest - inflation” with prediction of the interest rate theory about expensivity of loans?

According to the interest rate theory higher price level will lead to following chain of events in the short run: Marginal propensity to save will decrease(ratio of spending/saving will change, people ...
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Do countries with high taxes end up with low government debt but high private debt?

I'm curious if my observation that some Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Sweden) have high taxes, low government debt, but high private (in particular high household) debt is applicable more generally ...
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National debt question

I have a question regarding the national debt. I understand that foreign governments and/or central banks hold somewhere north of $6 trillion of US Treasury securities. I have found minimal ...
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Why does the United States' national debt matter?

This might sound like a naive question, but I mean it quite honestly (please be aware that I am merely a high school student): Why does the United States' government debt matter? To be sure, based on ...
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Do local taxes help in paying back foreign debts?

I always wonder if increasing local taxes could help countries in paying off the foreign debts? I think taxes generate income in local currency. While foreign debts (from IMF, World Bank etc.) are to ...
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51 views

Current Account vs Net Exports

In Mian, Sufi and Verner (2017), the authors look at the impact of an increase in household debt on both net exports and the current account, and find a significant negative coefficient in the ...
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34 views

What is the logic behind that one can “grow out of debt” via increase in GDP?

As we all know the US has a big debt and increasing deficits. The head of FED J. Powell commented that the US was on an unsustainable path w.r.t some debt to GDP ratio. A few commentators I listen to ...
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Possible “debt-to-…” ratio indicators for debt-to-economic growth relationship?

Suppose we are interested in the relationship between public or external debt and economic growth. One can look at the debt-to-GDP ratio or debt-to-export ratio. What may be other possible "debt-...
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1answer
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Value flow in economy - redefinition credit and money?

There are voices that there are already too much debt in the world (government, personal, government debt) and that can be the cause of the crisis. From the other hand the the only solution offered by ...
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Spending despite fiscal deficit

This is going to be a rather simple question. Surprisingly, I did not find quite a lot of answers satisfactorily explaining my point. The question goes like this- The USA, under the Trump regime, ...
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Does Medicaid or Medicare represent a higher risk to the Federal Government Solvency and Debt going forward?

I'm trying to understand not only which program is expected to be larger in terms of costs, but which one has the least capacity to adjust (reduce benefits if revenues for the program fall).
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Debt Held By The Public

Following off the back of this question on debt-to-GDP vs. debt held by public-to-GDP - Difference between "Debt Held by the Public" and "Total Public Debt Outstanding"?: So in ...
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425 views

Currency Devaluation - As a Means of Paying Off Debt

From https://www.sapling.com/8117368/debt-handled-currency-devaluation: Currency devaluation will not only affect consumer debts, but it will affect how a country pays back its national debt. If a ...
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Is a high borrowing rate bad?

I'm not an economist, so this may be a stupid question, but why are high borrowing rates among individuals and corporations bad? Like, I've heard high student and credit card debt mentioned as reasons ...
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Useful models/theory private debt and borrowed constrained households

In macro oriented research papers the role of private debt is discussed and that apparently when there is a lot of private debt in the economy, households tend to be borrowed constrained.. Could ...
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Why don't we have many-to-many lending yet?

Trying to research this for some time, but can't really find anything relevant. As it currently stands borrowing can be one-to-one: 1 customer borrows money from 1 bank. And can be one-to-many: 1 ...
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153 views

Why don't governments exploit negative interest rates more than they currently do?

At the moment many governments, such as Finland's, are able to borrow money at negative interest rates. My question is: why don't they borrow as much money as possible while interest rates are ...
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On a Dalio youtube video

The following video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PHe0bXAIuk0 argues that credit is the principal force behind the business cycle. Is this considered to be a established truth within some school ...
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Do the republican tax cuts cost more than forgiving student loan debt?

It is alleged by this article in the Guardian that the republican tax cuts cost more money than the total student loan debt bubble. The accuracy of this claim was briefly discussed in this post via ...
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Why does a weaker currency make sovereign debt cheaper?

Investopedia tells me that a weaker currency will reduce sovereign debt burdens. It is quoted as saying 'a weaker currency makes [these] payments effectively less expensive over time.' However, I ...
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4answers
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why is it always said that a CAD must be financed by borrowing from foreign countries

a current account deficit (CAD) means you have money leaking out of your country and going to ROW (rest of world). i see here (https://www.imf.org/external/region/tlm/rr/pdf/fpp5.pdf) that it can be '...
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733 views

How to calculate the after tax WACC

So i have this question: Assume the following data for U&P Company: Debt (D) = $100 million; Equity (E) =$300 million; rD = 6%; rE = 12%; and TC = 30%. Calculate the after-tax weighted average ...
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How did the UK become so indebted?

In 2011, household, financial, and business debts stood at 420% of GDP in the UK. This doesn't sound like a very good state of affairs (am I wrong?). If this is a negative state of affairs how did ...
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114 views

Is it possible to repay the world debt? If not, why do we care?

Let me apologize if my questions sound stupid to experts. I have no training in economics. I am just curious and puzzled. I couldn't find any answer to the questions below. As far as I have ...
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What is the opposite of debt?

In trade, the opposite of trade deficit is trade surplus. In other words, the negative deficit is called surplus. And then, what is the term for negative debt? Say for example Bank A owes 5 million ...